vibrio cholerae
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2022 ◽  
Siu Lung Ng ◽  
Sophia A. Kammann ◽  
Gabi Steinbach ◽  
Tobias Hoffmann ◽  
Peter J. Yunker ◽  

Mutations in regulatory mechanisms that control gene expression contribute to phenotypic diversity and thus facilitate the adaptation of microbes to new niches. Regulatory architecture is often inferred from transcription factor identification and genome analysis using purely computational approaches. However, there are few examples of phenotypic divergence that arise from the rewiring of bacterial regulatory circuity by mutations in intergenic regions, because locating regulatory elements within regions of DNA that do not code for protein requires genomic and experimental data. We identify a single cis-acting single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dramatically alters control of the type VI secretion system (T6), a common weapon for inter-bacterial competition. Tight T6 regulatory control is necessary for adaptation of the waterborne pathogen Vibrio cholerae to in vivo conditions within the human gut, which we show can be altered by this single non-coding SNP that results in constitutive expression in vitro. Our results support a model of pathogen evolution through cis-regulatory mutation and preexisting, active transcription factors, thus conferring different fitness advantages to tightly regulated strains inside a human host and unfettered strains adapted to environmental niches.

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009991
Ipek Altinoglu ◽  
Guillaume Abriat ◽  
Alexis Carreaux ◽  
Lucía Torres-Sánchez ◽  
Mickaël Poidevin ◽  

In rod-shaped bacteria, the emergence and maintenance of long-axis cell polarity is involved in key cellular processes such as cell cycle, division, environmental sensing and flagellar motility among others. Many bacteria achieve cell pole differentiation through the use of polar landmark proteins acting as scaffolds for the recruitment of functional macromolecular assemblies. In Vibrio cholerae a large membrane-tethered protein, HubP, specifically interacts with proteins involved in chromosome segregation, chemotaxis and flagellar biosynthesis. Here we used comparative proteomics, genetic and imaging approaches to identify additional HubP partners and demonstrate that at least six more proteins are subject to HubP-dependent polar localization. These include a cell-wall remodeling enzyme (DacB), a likely chemotaxis sensory protein (HlyB), two presumably cytosolic proteins of unknown function (VC1210 and VC1380) and two membrane-bound proteins, named here MotV and MotW, that exhibit distinct effects on chemotactic motility. We show that while both ΔmotW and ΔmotV mutants retain monotrichous flagellation, they present significant to severe motility defects when grown in soft agar. Video-tracking experiments further reveal that ΔmotV cells can swim in liquid environments but are unable to tumble or penetrate a semisolid matrix, whereas a motW deletion affects both tumbling frequency and swimming speed. Motility suppressors and gene co-occurrence analyses reveal co-evolutionary linkages between MotV, a subset of non-canonical CheV proteins and flagellar C-ring components FliG and FliM, whereas MotW regulatory inputs appear to intersect with specific c-di-GMP signaling pathways. Together, these results reveal an ever more versatile role for the landmark cell pole organizer HubP and identify novel mechanisms of motility regulation.

2022 ◽  
David Sauer ◽  
Jennifer J. Marden ◽  
Joseph C. Sudar ◽  
Jinmei Song ◽  
Christopher Mulligan ◽  

The Na+-dependent dicarboxylate transporter from Vibrio cholerae (VcINDY) is a prototype for the divalent anion sodium symporter (DASS) family. While the utilization of an electrochemical Na+ gradient to power substrate transport is well established for VcINDY, the structural basis of this coupling between sodium and substrate binding is not currently understood. Here, using a combination of cryo-EM structure determination, succinate binding and site-directed cysteine alkylation assays, we demonstrate that the VcINDY protein couples sodium- and substrate-binding via a previously unseen induced-fit mechanism. In the absence of sodium, substrate binding is abolished, with the succinate binding regions exhibiting increased flexibility, including HPinb, TM10b and the substrate clamshell motifs. Upon sodium binding, these regions become structurally ordered and create a proper binding site for the substrate. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that VcINDY's induced-fit mechanism is a result of the sodium-dependent formation of the substrate binding site.

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (1) ◽  
Bright E. Igere ◽  
Anthony I. Okoh ◽  
Uchechukwu U. Nwodo

Abstract Introduction and purpose The recent cholera spread, new cases, and fatality continue to arouse concern in public health systems; however, interventions on control is at its peak yet statistics show continuous report. This study characterized atypical and patho-significant environmental Vibrio cholerae retrieved from ground/surface/domestic water in rural-urban-sub-urban locations of Amathole District municipality and Chris Hani District municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Methods Domestic/surface water was sampled and 759 presumptive V. cholerae isolates were retrieved using standard microbiological methods. Virulence phenotypic test: toxin co-regulated pili (tcp), choleragen red, protease production, lecithinase production, and lipase test were conducted. Serotyping using polyvalent antisera (Bengal and Ogawa/Inaba/Hikojima) and molecular typing: 16SrRNA, OmpW, serogroup (Vc-O1/O139), biotype (tcpAClas/El Tor, HlyAClas/El Tor, rstRClas/El Tor, RS1, rtxA, rtxC), and virulence (ctxA, ctxB, zot, ace, cep, prt, toxR, hlyA) genes were targeted. Result Result of 16SrRNA typing confirmed 508 (66.9%) while OmpW detected/confirmed 61 (12.01%) V. cholerae strains. Phenotypic-biotyping scheme showed positive test to polymyxin B (68.9%), Voges proskauer (6.6%), and Bengal serology (11.5%). Whereas Vc-O1/O139 was negative, yet two of the isolates harbored the cholera toxin with a gene-type ctxB and hlyAClas: 2/61, revealing atypical/unusual/dual biotype phenotypic/genotypic features. Other potential atypical genotypes detected include rstR: 7/61, Cep: 15/61, ace: 20/61, hlyAElTor: 53/61, rtxA: 30/61, rtxC: 11/61, and prtV: 15/61 respectively. Conclusion Although additional patho-significant/virulent genotypes associated with epidemic/sporadic cholera cases were detected, an advanced, bioinformatics, and post-molecular evaluation is necessary. Such stride possesses potential to adequately minimize future cholera cases associated with dynamic/atypical environmental V. cholerae strains.

Goutham Belagula Manjunath ◽  
Sharda Prasad Awasthi ◽  
M. Shamim Hasan Zahid ◽  
Noritoshi Hatanaka ◽  
Atsushi Hinenoya ◽  

ChemMedChem ◽  
2022 ◽  
Geqing Wang ◽  
Biswaranjan Mohanty ◽  
Martin L Williams ◽  
Bradley C Doak ◽  
Rabeb Dhouib ◽  

Thandavarayan Ramamurthy ◽  
Asish K. Mukhopadhyay ◽  
Bhabatosh Das ◽  
Ranjan K. Nandy ◽  
Ankur Mutreja ◽  

Aquaculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 547 ◽  
pp. 737529
Manoharmayum Shaya Devi ◽  
Prasenjit Paria ◽  
Vikash Kumar ◽  
Pranaya Kumar Parida ◽  
Praveen Maurye ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 31-32
Hanqiu Yan ◽  
Bo Pang ◽  
Xin Lu ◽  
Zhiyong Gao ◽  

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