active ingredient
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2022 ◽  
Vol 116 (1) ◽  
pp. 28-34
Author(s):  
Jakub Karas ◽  
David Vetchý ◽  
Jan Gajdziok

The deposition of a drug to its required destination is crucial for effective lung treatment. It is important to design a suitable formulation that delivers the active ingredient to the desired site and resists the natural cleansing mechanisms of the airways. Large porous particles used as active substance carriers appear to be the most effective option for lung drug delivery. The present article provides a basic overview of the mechanisms of deposition of dry inhalable powders and methods of their preparation and evaluation. Spray drying together with micronization and crystallization techniques are among the most used methods of preparation of the discussed particles. Besides, these techniques can be combined with other production processes (encapsulation, emulsification, etc.). The evaluation of the properties of particles suitable for pulmonary application is based on specific requirements for their density, porosity, shape, aerodynamic parameters, and deposition in the lungs, which can now be simulated on an accurate model of artificial lungs.


Author(s):  
Ousmane Dembélé ◽  
Seydou Moussa Coulibaly ◽  
Jacques Dakouo ◽  
Benoît Y Koumaré

Background and Objectives: In a world marked by the spread of counterfeiting and substandard drugs, often without active ingredients or falsified active ingredients, greater vigilance by pharmaceutical regulatory authorities is necessary. The National Health Laboratory (LNS), in accordance with its mission, takes samples throughout the country in order to ensure their quality control. Methods: Samples were taken in certain regions and the district of Bamako and analyzed according to the standards of the United State Pharmacopoeia (USP), British Pharmacopoeia (BP) and International Pharmacopoeia (IP)by identification and assay methods. Products that do not meet the required specifications described by these pharmacopoeias are declared non-compliant. Results: This allowed us to analyze a total of 617 samples with 11 cases of non-compliance for a rate of 2%. The causes of the non-conformities were due to the absence of an active ingredient, an under-dosage of the active ingredient and technical and regulatory defects. Conclusion: After one year of activity, our results showed that out of a total of 617 drug samples collected and analyzed, 606 were compliant with a rate of 98% against 11 cases of non-compliance or 2% (p ≤ 0,05). The causes of the non-compliance were due to the absence of an active ingredient, an under-dosage of the active ingredient and technical and regulatory defects.                     Peer Review History: Received: 20 November 2021; Revised: 18 December; Accepted: 31 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Asia Selman Abdullah, Pharmacy institute, University of Basrah, Iraq, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.5/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10 Reviewers: Dr. Govind Vyas, Compliance & Regulatory Officer Inva-Tech Pharmaceuticals LLC, New-Jersey, USA, [email protected] Dr. Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, AIMST University, Malaysia, [email protected] Dr. Bilge Ahsen KARA, Ankara Gazi Mustafa Kemal Hospital, Turkey, [email protected] Dr. Mohammad Bayan, Faculty of Pharmacy, Philadelphia University, P.O. Box: 1 Philadelphia University 19392 Jordan, [email protected] Similar Articles: ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY PHARMACIST AWARENESS ON ADVERSE DRUG REACTION (ADR) AND PHARMACOVIGILANCE REPORTING SYSTEM IN KHARTOUM LOCALITY, SUDAN THE EFFICIENCY OF INEFFICIENCY: MEDICINE DISTRIBUTION IN SUDAN


Author(s):  
Andressa C. Z. Machado

Management of plant parasitic nematodes in Brazil is a challenge and bionematicides are an important tool in the Integrated Nematode Management in several crops. There are 47 commercial bionematicides with 11 microorganisms as active ingredient available for growers in Brazil; Bacillus spp. are the main biological control agents, but fungi are also important for nematode management. Bionematicides reached 82% of the total market of nematicides in 2019/2020 in Brazil and, in soybean, they represented 90% of the area treated with nematicides. Although, the use of bionematicides is considered an emerging market worldwide, some challenges involve the correct use and formulation of organisms with different modes of action, difficulties in laboratory culturing, and the existence of non-regulated bionematicides, which do not ensure the quality, the purity, and the efficiency in the nematode control under field conditions, leading to lack of control and discredit of this tool. Considering the Brazilian biodiversity richness, a universe of new macroand microorganisms can be explored, as well as the metabolites produced by these organisms as the active ingredient of bionematicides. Expectations of an increase in this market are optimistic and may materialize in light of the increasing demand for biological products in Brazil.


2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Adama Gansané ◽  
Baltazar Candrinho ◽  
Aimable Mbituyumuremyi ◽  
Perpetua Uhomoibhi ◽  
Sagnon NFalé ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Vector control tools have contributed significantly to a reduction in malaria burden since 2000, primarily through insecticidal-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying. In the face of increasing insecticide resistance in key malaria vector species, global progress in malaria control has stalled. Innovative tools, such as dual active ingredient (dual-AI) ITNs that are effective at killing insecticide-resistant mosquitoes have recently been introduced. However, large-scale uptake has been slow for several reasons, including higher costs and limited evidence on their incremental effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The present report describes the design of several observational studies aimed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dual-AI ITNs, compared to standard pyrethroid-only ITNs, at reducing malaria transmission across a variety of transmission settings. Methods Observational pilot studies are ongoing in Burkina Faso, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Rwanda, leveraging dual-AI ITN rollouts nested within the 2019 and 2020 mass distribution campaigns in each country. Enhanced surveillance occurring in select study districts include annual cross-sectional surveys during peak transmission seasons, monthly entomological surveillance, passive case detection using routine health facility surveillance systems, and studies on human behaviour and ITN use patterns. Data will compare changes in malaria transmission and disease burden in districts receiving dual-AI ITNs to similar districts receiving standard pyrethroid-only ITNs over three years. The costs of net distribution will be calculated using the provider perspective including financial and economic costs, and a cost-effectiveness analysis will assess incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for Interceptor® G2, Royal Guard®, and piperonyl butoxide ITNs in comparison to standard pyrethroid-only ITNs, based on incidence rate ratios calculated from routine data. Conclusions Evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the dual-AI ITNs from these pilot studies will complement evidence from two contemporary cluster randomized control trials, one in Benin and one in Tanzania, to provide key information to malaria control programmes, policymakers, and donors to help guide decision-making and planning for local malaria control and elimination strategies. Understanding the breadth of contexts where these dual-AI ITNs are most effective and collecting robust information on factors influencing comparative effectiveness could improve uptake and availability and help maximize their impact.


Macromol ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-29
Author(s):  
Edilberto Ojeda ◽  
África García-Barrientos ◽  
Nagore Martínez de Cestafe ◽  
José María Alonso ◽  
Raúl Pérez-González ◽  
...  

Additive manufacturing (AM), frequently cited as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a relatively new manufacturing technique for biofabrication, also called 3D manufacture with biomaterials and cells. Recent advances in this field will facilitate further improvement of personalized healthcare solutions. In this regard, tailoring several healthcare products such as implants, prosthetics, and in vitro models, would have been extraordinarily arduous beyond these technologies. Three-dimensional-printed structures with a multiscale porosity are very interesting manufacturing processes in order to boost the capability of composite scaffolds to generate bone tissue. The use of biomimetic hydroxyapatite as the main active ingredient for bioinks is a helpful approach to obtain these advanced materials. Thus, 3D-printed biomimetic composite designs may produce supplementary biological and physical benefits. Three-dimensional bioprinting may turn to be a bright solution for regeneration of bone tissue as it enables a proper spatio-temporal organization of cells in scaffolds. Different types of bioprinting technologies and essential parameters which rule the applicability of bioinks are discussed in this review. Special focus is made on hydroxyapatite as an active ingredient for bioinks design. The goal of such bioinks is to reduce the constraints of commonly applied treatments by enhancing osteoinduction and osteoconduction, which seems to be exceptionally promising for bone regeneration.


Author(s):  
Goutham Belagula Manjunath ◽  
Sharda Prasad Awasthi ◽  
M. Shamim Hasan Zahid ◽  
Noritoshi Hatanaka ◽  
Atsushi Hinenoya ◽  
...  

HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (1) ◽  
pp. 24-31
Author(s):  
Achala N. KC ◽  
Ann L. Rasmussen ◽  
Joseph B. DeShields

Sprayable formulation of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was tested as a preharvest application on European pears to determine the best timing and rate of 1-MCP application for maintaining fruit firmness and quality of trees during harvest and in storage after harvest. Two rates of 1-MCP, 0.06 and 0.13 g⋅L−1 active ingredient (a.i.) (minimum and maximum rates, respectively), were sprayed 1 week and 2 weeks before commercial harvest on two cultivars, Bosc and Comice, in 2017 and 2018. After 2 months in cold storage (0 ± 1 °C), differences in fruit firmness of both cultivars were observed among treatments. For ‘Bosc’, fruit treated with both rates 1 week before harvest were 50% firmer than nontreated control fruit. For ‘Comice’, fruit treated with the maximum rate both 2 weeks and 1 week before commercial harvest were 46% and 31% firmer than nontreated control fruit, respectively. However, after 4 months in storage, no differences in fruit firmness of both ‘Bosc’ and ‘Comice’ were observed among treatments. The sprayable 1-MCP application applied 2 weeks before commercial harvest also affected the fruit firmness on trees. The maximum rate of 1-MCP treatment consistently maintained the fruit firmness by 5.0 N compared with fruit treated with the minimum rate and nontreated controls. This effect was significant until 1 week after commercial harvest for both cultivars and until 2 weeks after commercial harvest for ‘Bosc’. The poststorage fruit firmness and overall eating quality of ‘Bosc’ were unaffected by the maximum rate of 1-MCP application as well as the extended harvest time. However, for ‘Comice’, the overall eating quality was negatively impacted by 1-MCP treatments. This study suggests that the maximum rate (0.13 g⋅L−1 a.i.) of 1-MCP application 2 weeks before commercial harvest maintains the fruit firmness of ‘Bosc’ for at least 2 weeks more and offers an extended harvest window for better preharvest management. Furthermore, this treatment improves the physiological fruit quality such as senescence scald during the poststorage period without significantly affecting the poststorage ripening of ‘Bosc’ after 4 months of storage.


2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
Author(s):  
E. M. Vogel ◽  
L. L. M. Marques ◽  
A. A. Droval ◽  
A. M. Gozzo ◽  
F. A. R. Cardoso

Abstract As there is a great scarcity of studies on the importance of good compounding practices in the preparation of cosmetics, this study aimed to evaluate the quality control of cosmetics with active ingredient caffeine for the treatment of cellulite prepared by magistrals pharmacies. Microbiological analyzes, pH determination, color measurement, quantification of the percentage of the active ingredient caffeine and viscosity in creams and gels with 5% of the active ingredient caffeine were performed. In the microbiological analysis, the presence of molds and yeasts was verified above the permitted level according to the Brazilian pharmacopoeia. The pH decreased over time, contributing to the formulations becoming more acidic. In the color parameters, it was found that pharmacy F4 showed a brownish color, both for the gel and for the cream. The percentage of caffeine was within specifications in all formulations and the viscosity remained unchanged during the shelf life of the samples. It is important that the compounding pharmacies demand more effectively the commitment of the team, as well as the analysis of the raw material according to the microbiological control regulations to translate into the quality of the products prepared by the pharmacies and favor the consumer in the effective objective that the product you want to achieve.


2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 353-361
Author(s):  
Denis I. Parpura ◽  
Anton I. Sidortsov ◽  
Gaik P. Atmachyan

Rust is one of the most economically important foliar diseases of sunflower. The problem of sunflower disease control was considered. The article presents the results of a two-year experiment studying the efficiency of AMISTAR Gold fungicide, concentrated suspension (active ingredient: Azoxystrobin 125 g/L, Difenoconazole 125 g/L) in sunflower hybrids in the Lower Volga region. Flowerbud development stage was the best application timing for increasing productivity. Therefore, sunflower yield averaged 34 c/ha. The biological efficiency of the fungicide ranged from 85 to 90 %. The calculation of economic efficiency showed 145255 % profitability depending on the year.


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