phenotypic diversity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 219 (2) ◽  
Ewelina Krzywinska ◽  
Michal Sobecki ◽  
Shunmugam Nagarajan ◽  
Julian Zacharjasz ◽  
Murtaza M. Tambuwala ◽  

Gut innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) show remarkable phenotypic diversity, yet microenvironmental factors that drive this plasticity are incompletely understood. The balance between NKp46+, IL-22–producing, group 3 ILCs (ILC3s) and interferon (IFN)-γ–producing group 1 ILCs (ILC1s) contributes to gut homeostasis. The gut mucosa is characterized by physiological hypoxia, and adaptation to low oxygen is mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). However, the impact of HIFs on ILC phenotype and gut homeostasis is not well understood. Mice lacking the HIF-1α isoform in NKp46+ ILCs show a decrease in IFN-γ–expressing, T-bet+, NKp46+ ILC1s and a concomitant increase in IL-22–expressing, RORγt+, NKp46+ ILC3s in the gut mucosa. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed HIF-1α as a driver of ILC phenotypes, where HIF-1α promotes the ILC1 phenotype by direct up-regulation of T-bet. Loss of HIF-1α in NKp46+ cells prevents ILC3-to-ILC1 conversion, increases the expression of IL-22–inducible genes, and confers protection against intestinal damage. Taken together, our results suggest that HIF-1α shapes the ILC phenotype in the gut.

2022 ◽  
Siu Lung Ng ◽  
Sophia A. Kammann ◽  
Gabi Steinbach ◽  
Tobias Hoffmann ◽  
Peter J. Yunker ◽  

Mutations in regulatory mechanisms that control gene expression contribute to phenotypic diversity and thus facilitate the adaptation of microbes to new niches. Regulatory architecture is often inferred from transcription factor identification and genome analysis using purely computational approaches. However, there are few examples of phenotypic divergence that arise from the rewiring of bacterial regulatory circuity by mutations in intergenic regions, because locating regulatory elements within regions of DNA that do not code for protein requires genomic and experimental data. We identify a single cis-acting single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dramatically alters control of the type VI secretion system (T6), a common weapon for inter-bacterial competition. Tight T6 regulatory control is necessary for adaptation of the waterborne pathogen Vibrio cholerae to in vivo conditions within the human gut, which we show can be altered by this single non-coding SNP that results in constitutive expression in vitro. Our results support a model of pathogen evolution through cis-regulatory mutation and preexisting, active transcription factors, thus conferring different fitness advantages to tightly regulated strains inside a human host and unfettered strains adapted to environmental niches.

2022 ◽  
Hongchang Gu ◽  
Liang Wang ◽  
Xueze Lv ◽  
Weifang Yang ◽  
Yu Chen ◽  

Abstract The regulation of gene expression is a complex process involving organism function and phenotypic diversity, and is caused by cis- and trans- regulation. While prior studies identified the regulatory pattern of the autosome rewiring in hybrids, the role of gene regulation in W sex chromosomes is not clear due to their degradation and sex-limit expression. Here, we developed reciprocal crosses of two chicken breeds, White Leghorn and Cornish Game, which exhibited broad differences of gender-related traits, and assessed the expression of the genes on W chromosome to disentangle the contribution of cis- and trans-factors to expression divergence. We found that there was not appear to be an association between female fecundity and W chromosome gene expression, that 44% of expressed genes had divergent expression between breeds in both tissues, with only 17% of them showing greater expression in White Leghorn. We observed that the proportion of trans-acting genes in W chromosome was higher than cis-regulatory divergence. There were most parental divergence expression genes in muscle, also more heterosis compared with other two tissues. A strong dominant impact of Cornish alleles in brain, while obvious crosses-specific regulatory patterns appeared in liver. Taken together, this work describes the regulatory divergence of W-linked genes between two contrasting breeds and indicates sex chromosomes have a unique regulation and expression mechanism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yong-Hui Xin ◽  
Yuan-Xin Wu ◽  
Bin Qiao ◽  
Long Su ◽  
Shang-Qian Xie ◽  

AbstractCalamansi or Philippine lime (Citrofortunella macrocarpa) is an important crop for local economic in Hainan Island. There is no study about Calamansi germplasm evaluation and cultivar development. In this study, Calamansi data were collected from 151 of Calamansi seedling trees, and 37 phenotypic traits were analyzed to investigate their genetic diversities. The cluster analysis and principal component analysis were conducted aiming to provide a theoretical basis for the Calamansi genetic improvement. The results of the diversity analysis revealed: (1) the diversity indexes for qualitative traits were ranged from 0.46–1.39, and the traits with the highest genetic diversity level were fruit shaped and pulp colored (H′ > 1.20); and the diversity indexes for quantitative traits ranged from 0.67–2.10, with the exception of a lower in fruit juice rate (1.08) and lower in number of petals (0.67). (2) The clustering analysis of phenotypic traits have arranged the samples into 4 categories: the first group characterized by fewer flesh Segment number per fruit (SNF) and more Oil cell number (OCN); the second group had 7 samples, all characterized with larger Crown breadth (CB), higher Yield per tree (YPT), the lager leaf, the higher Ascorbic acid (AA), and less Seed number per fruit (SNPF); the third group had 25 samples characterized by smaller Tree foot diameter (TFD),smaller Fruit shape index (FSI) and higher Total soluble solids (TSS) contain; the fourth group had 87 samples, they were characterized by shorter Petiole length (PEL), larger fruit, higher Juice ratio (JR), multiple Stamen number (SN) and longer Pistil length (PIL). (3) The principal component analysis showed the values of the first 9 major components characteristic vectors were all greater than 3, the cumulative contribution rate reach 72.20%, including the traits of single fruit weight, fruit diameter, tree height, tree canopy width etc. Finally, based on the comprehensive main component value of all samples, the Calamansi individuals with higher testing scores were selected for further observation. This study concludes that Calamansi seedling populations in the Hainan Island holds great genetic diversity in varies traits, and can be useful for the Calamansi variety improvements.

Pablo Villarreal ◽  
Carlos Villarroel ◽  
Samuel O’Donnell ◽  
Nicolas Agier ◽  
Julian Quintero-Galvis ◽  

Most organisms belonging to the Saccharomycotina subphylum have high genetic diversity and a vast repertoire of metabolisms and lifestyles, which explains its ecological versatility. The yeast Lachancea cidri is an ideal model for exploring the interplay between genetics, ecological function and evolution. L. cidri is a species that diverged from the Saccharomyces lineage before the whole-genome duplication and exhibits a broad distribution across the South Hemisphere, thus displaying an important ecological success. Here, we applied phylogenomics to investigate the adaptive genetic variation of L. cidri isolates obtained from natural environments in Australia and South America. Our approach revealed the presence of two main lineages according to their geographic distribution (Aus and SoAm). Estimation of the divergence time suggest that South American and Australian lineages diverged near the last glacial maximum event during the Pleistocene (64-8 KYA), consistent with the presence of multiple glacial refugia. Interestingly, we found that the French reference strain belongs to the Australian lineage, with a recent divergence (405-51 YA), likely associated to human movements. Additionally, species delimitation analysis identified different evolutionary units within the South American lineage and, together with parameters like Pi (π) and FST, revealed that Patagonia contains most of the genetic diversity of this species. These results agree with phenotypic characterizations, demonstrating a greater phenotypic diversity in the South American lineage. These findings support the idea of a Pleistocene-dated divergence between South Hemisphere lineages, where the Nothofagus and Araucaria ecological niches likely favored the extensive distribution of L. cidri in Patagonia.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Katarina Tumpa ◽  
Zlatko Liber ◽  
Zlatko Šatović ◽  
Jasnica Medak ◽  
Marilena Idžojtić ◽  

Common or English yew (Taxus baccata L., Taxaceae) is a conifer species, native to Europe, northern Africa, Asia Minor and Caucasus. It is a dioecious, wind-pollinated and animal-dispersed tree, known for its high-quality wood and medicinal properties, albeit poisonous. The species is rare and has been legally protected at the European and national levels. In addition, its low population density and disjunct character of distribution have reinforced the need for its protection as regeneration is mostly lacking. The aim of this study was to phenotypically characterise the north-western Balkan yew populations. Phenotypic diversity was examined for seven populations, using morphometric analysis of nine phenotypic traits of needles. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate the inter- and intrapopulation variability. In addition, to test correlations between geographic, climatic and phenotypic data, Mantel test was used. We identified a geographic structure across studied populations that exhibited high levels of variability on intra- and interpopulation levels. Two groups of populations have been defined and are consistent with previously described genetic divergent lineages from separate refugia. In addition, a significant correlation between phenotypic and geographic data were revealed, i.e., isolation by distance (IBD). However, the Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between morphometric and environmental data. In conclusion, our data reveal that the historical events and persistent IBD acted in combination to produce the morphological patterns observed in common yew populations in the north-western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Finally, we suggested conservation measures to be implemented on a stand level, with habitat preservation as the main goal. In addition, ex situ conservation should be considered, both in the form of collections and urban planting, as both provide additional gene pool reserves.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Guiguigbaza-Kossigan Dayo ◽  
Isidore Houaga ◽  
Martin Bienvenu Somda ◽  
Awa Linguelegue ◽  
Mamadou Ira ◽  

Abstract Background The present study aimed at characterizing the Djallonké Sheep (DS), the only local sheep breed raised in Guinea-Bissau. A total of 200 animals were sampled from four regions (Bafatá, Gabú, Oio and Cacheu) and described using 7 visual criteria and 8 measurements. These parameters have been studied by principal components analysis. The genetic diversity and population structure of 92 unrelated animals were studied using 12 microsatellite markers. Results The values of quantitative characters in the Bafatá region were significantly higher than those obtained in the other three regions. A phenotypic diversity of the DS population was observed and three genetic types distinguished: animals with “large traits” in the region of Bafatá, animals with “intermediate traits” in the regions of Gabú and Oio and animals with “small traits” in the Cacheu region. The hair coat colors are dominated by the white color, the shape of the facial head profile is mainly convex and the ears “erected horizontally”. Most of the morphobiometric characteristics were significantly influenced by the “region” and “sex of animals”. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of 0.65 ± 0.11 supports the use of markers in genetic characterization. Gabú subpopulation had the highest genetic diversity measures (He = 0.716 ± 0.089) while Cacheu DS subpopulation presented the smallest (He = 0.651 ± 0.157). Only Gabú and Bafatá subpopulations presented significant heterozygote deficiency across all loci indicating possible significant inbreeding. Mean values for FIT,FST, FIS and GST statistics across all loci were 0.09, 0.029, 0.063 and 0.043 respectively. The overall genetic differentiation observed between the four DS subpopulations studied was low. Bafatá and Gabú are the most closely related subpopulations (DS = 0.04, genetic identity = 0.96) while Bafatá and Cacheu were the most genetically distant subpopulations (DS = 0.14, genetic identity = 0.87). Using Bayesian approach, the number of K groups that best fit the data is detected between 2 and 3, which is consistent with the morphological analysis and the factorial analysis of correspondence. Conclusions The molecular results on DS population of Guinea-Bissau confirmed the ones obtained with morphological analysis. The three genetic types observed phenotypically might be due to a combination of the agro-ecological differences and the management of breeding rather than genetic factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jana Ebersbach ◽  
Nazifa Azam Khan ◽  
Ian McQuillan ◽  
Erin E. Higgins ◽  
Kyla Horner ◽  

Phenotyping is considered a significant bottleneck impeding fast and efficient crop improvement. Similar to many crops, Brassica napus, an internationally important oilseed crop, suffers from low genetic diversity, and will require exploitation of diverse genetic resources to develop locally adapted, high yielding and stress resistant cultivars. A pilot study was completed to assess the feasibility of using indoor high-throughput phenotyping (HTP), semi-automated image processing, and machine learning to capture the phenotypic diversity of agronomically important traits in a diverse B. napus breeding population, SKBnNAM, introduced here for the first time. The experiment comprised 50 spring-type B. napus lines, grown and phenotyped in six replicates under two treatment conditions (control and drought) over 38 days in a LemnaTec Scanalyzer 3D facility. Growth traits including plant height, width, projected leaf area, and estimated biovolume were extracted and derived through processing of RGB and NIR images. Anthesis was automatically and accurately scored (97% accuracy) and the number of flowers per plant and day was approximated alongside relevant canopy traits (width, angle). Further, supervised machine learning was used to predict the total number of raceme branches from flower attributes with 91% accuracy (linear regression and Huber regression algorithms) and to identify mild drought stress, a complex trait which typically has to be empirically scored (0.85 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, random forest classifier algorithm). The study demonstrates the potential of HTP, image processing and computer vision for effective characterization of agronomic trait diversity in B. napus, although limitations of the platform did create significant variation that limited the utility of the data. However, the results underscore the value of machine learning for phenotyping studies, particularly for complex traits such as drought stress resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dario Rueda ◽  
Henry O. Awika ◽  
Renesh Bedre ◽  
Devi R. Kandel ◽  
Kranthi K. Mandadi ◽  

Ascorbic acid (AsA), or vitamin C, is an essential nutrient for humans. In plants, AsA functions as an antioxidant during normal metabolism or in response to stress. Spinach is a highly nutritious green leafy vegetable that is consumed fresh, cooked or as a part of other dishes. One current goal in spinach breeding programs is to enhance quality and nutritional content. However, little is known about the diversity of nutritional content present in spinach germplasm, especially for AsA content. In this study, a worldwide panel of 352 accessions was screened for AsA content showing that variability in spinach germplasm is high and could be utilized for cultivar improvement. In addition, a genome-wide association study for marker-trait association was performed using three models, and associated markers were searched in the genome for functional annotation analysis. The generalized linear model (GLM), the compressed mixed linear model (CMLM) based on population parameters previously determined (P3D) and the perMarker model together identified a total of 490 significant markers distributed across all six spinach chromosomes indicating the complex inheritance of the trait. The different association models identified unique and overlapping marker sets, where 27 markers were identified by all three models. Identified high AsA content accessions can be used as parental lines for trait introgression and to create segregating populations for further genetic analysis. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that identified markers can differentiate between high and low AsA content accessions and that, upon validation, these markers should be useful for breeding programs.

2022 ◽  
Choon-Tak Kwon ◽  
Lingli Tang ◽  
Xingang Wang ◽  
Iacopo Gentile ◽  
Anat Hendelman ◽  

Gene duplications are a hallmark of plant genome evolution and a foundation for genetic interactions that shape phenotypic diversity. Compensation is a major form of paralog interaction, but how compensation relationships change as allelic variation accumulates is unknown. Here, we leveraged genomics and genome editing across the Solanaceae family to capture the evolution of compensating paralogs. Mutations in the stem cell regulator CLV3 cause floral organs to overproliferate in many plants. In tomato, this phenotype is partially suppressed by transcriptional upregulation of a closely related paralog. Tobacco lost this paralog, resulting in no compensation and extreme clv3 phenotypes. Strikingly, the paralogs of petunia and groundcherry nearly completely suppress clv3, indicating a potent ancestral state of compensation. Cross-species transgenic complementation analyses show this potent compensation partially degenerated in tomato due to a single amino acid change in the paralog and cis-regulatory variation that limits its transcriptional upregulation. Our findings show how genetic interactions are remodeled following duplications, and suggest that dynamic paralog evolution is widespread over short time scales and impacts phenotypic variation from natural and engineered mutations.

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