cellular processes
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
K. M. Souza ◽  
I. C. Mendes ◽  
D. M. Dall’Igna ◽  
B. M. Repolês ◽  
B. C. Resende ◽  

Abstract Nucleotide excision repair (NER) acts repairing damages in DNA, such as lesions caused by cisplatin. Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) protein is involved in recognition of global genome DNA damages during NER (GG-NER) and it has been studied in different organisms due to its importance in other cellular processes. In this work, we studied NER proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma evansi, parasites of humans and animals respectively. We performed three-dimensional models of XPC proteins from T. cruzi and T. evansi and observed few structural differences between these proteins. In our tests, insertion of XPC gene from T. evansi (TevXPC) in T. cruzi resulted in slower cell growth under normal conditions. After cisplatin treatment, T. cruzi overexpressing its own XPC gene (TcXPC) was able to recover cell division rates faster than T. cruzi expressing TevXPC gene. Based on these tests, it is suggested that TevXPC (being an exogenous protein in T. cruzi) interferes negatively in cellular processes where TcXPC (the endogenous protein) is involved. This probably occurred due interaction of TevXPC with some endogenous molecules or proteins from T.cruzi but incapacity of interaction with others. This reinforces the importance of correctly XPC functioning within the cell.

Brent Shuman ◽  
Michelle Momany

Septin GTPases form nonpolar heteropolymers that play important roles in cytokinesis and other cellular processes. The ability to form heteropolymers appears to be critical to many septin functions and to have been a major driver of the high conservation of many septin domains. Septins fall into five orthologous groups. Members of Groups 1–4 interact with each other to form heterooligomers and are known as the “core septins.” Representative core septins are present in all fungi and animals so far examined and show positional orthology with monomer location in the heteropolymer conserved within groups. In contrast, members of Group 5 are not part of canonical heteropolymers and appear to interact only transiently, if at all, with core septins. Group 5 septins have a spotty distribution, having been identified in specific fungi, ciliates, chlorophyte algae, and brown algae. In this review we compare the septins from nine well-studied model organisms that span the tree of life (Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Schistosoma mansoni, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe oryzae, Tetrahymena thermophila, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). We focus on classification, evolutionary relationships, conserved motifs, interfaces between monomers, and positional orthology within heteropolymers. Understanding the relationships of septins across kingdoms can give new insight into their functions.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 143
Carmen Llorens-Cebrià ◽  
Mireia Molina-Van den Bosch ◽  
Ander Vergara ◽  
Conxita Jacobs-Cachá ◽  
Maria José Soler

The reduction-oxidation (redox) system consists of the coupling and coordination of various electron gradients that are generated thanks to serial reduction-oxidation enzymatic reactions. These reactions happen in every cell and produce radical oxidants that can be mainly classified into reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS modulate cell-signaling pathways and cellular processes fundamental to normal cell function. However, overproduction of oxidative species can lead to oxidative stress (OS) that is pathological. Oxidative stress is a main contributor to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) onset. In the kidney, the proximal tubular cells require a high energy supply to reabsorb proteins, metabolites, ions, and water. In a diabetic milieu, glucose-induced toxicity promotes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, impairing tubular function. Increased glucose level in urine and ROS enhance the activity of sodium/glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2), which in turn exacerbates OS. SGLT2 inhibitors have demonstrated clear cardiovascular benefits in DKD which may be in part ascribed to the generation of a beneficial equilibrium between oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 429
Sarah Q. To ◽  
Rhynelle S. Dmello ◽  
Anna K. Richards ◽  
Matthias Ernst ◽  
Ashwini L. Chand

Interleukin (IL)-6 family cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-11, are defined by the shared use of the gp130 receptor for the downstream activation of STAT3 signaling and the activation of genes which contribute to the “hallmarks of cancer”, including proliferation, survival, invasion and metastasis. Increased expression of these cytokines, or the ligand-specific receptors IL-6R and IL-11RA, in breast tumors positively correlate to disease progression and poorer patient outcome. In this review, we examine evidence from pre-clinical studies that correlate enhanced IL-6 and IL-11 mediated gp130/STAT3 signaling to the progression of breast cancer. Key processes by which the IL-6 family cytokines contribute to the heterogeneous nature of breast cancer, immune evasion and metastatic potential, are discussed. We examine the latest research into the therapeutic targeting of IL-6 family cytokines that inhibit STAT3 transcriptional activity as a potential breast cancer treatment, including current clinical trials. The importance of the IL-6 family of cytokines in cellular processes that promote the development and progression of breast cancer warrants further understanding of the molecular basis for its actions to help guide the development of future therapeutic targets.

2022 ◽  
Rhiannon M Sears ◽  
Kyle J Roux

Mutations in the genes LMNA and BANF1 can lead to accelerated aging syndromes called progeria. The protein products of these genes, A-type lamins and BAF, respectively, are nuclear envelope (NE) proteins that interact and participate in various cellular processes, including nuclear envelope rupture and repair. BAF localizes to sites of nuclear rupture and recruits NE-repair machinery, including the LEM-domain proteins, ESCRT-III complex, A-type lamins, and membranes. Here, we show that it is a mobile, nucleoplasmic population of A-type lamins that is rapidly recruited to ruptures in a BAF-dependent manner via BAF′s association with the Ig-like β fold domain of A-type lamins. These initially mobile lamins become progressively stabilized at the site of rupture. Farnesylated prelamin A and lamin B1 fail to localize to nuclear ruptures, unless that farnesylation is inhibited. Progeria-associated LMNA mutations inhibit the recruitment affected A-type lamin to nuclear ruptures, due to either permanent farnesylation or inhibition of BAF binding. A progeria-associated BAF mutant targets to nuclear ruptures but is unable to recruit A-type lamins. Together, these data reveal the mechanisms that determine how lamins respond to nuclear ruptures and how progeric mutations of LMNA and BANF1 impair recruitment of A-type lamins to nuclear ruptures.

2022 ◽  
Murat C Kalem ◽  
Harini Subbiah ◽  
Shichen Shen ◽  
Runpu Chen ◽  
Luke Terry ◽  

Protein arginine methylation is a key post-translational modification in eukaryotes that modulates core cellular processes, including translation, morphology, transcription, and RNA fate. However, this has not been explored in Cryptococcus neoformans, a human-pathogenic basidiomycetous encapsulated fungus. We characterized the five protein arginine methyltransferases in C. neoformans and highlight Rmt5 as critical regulator of cryptococcal morphology and virulence. An rmt5∆ mutant was defective in thermotolerance, had a remodeled cell wall, and exhibited enhanced growth in an elevated carbon dioxide atmosphere and in chemically induced hypoxia. We revealed that Rmt5 interacts with post-transcriptional gene regulators, such as RNA-binding proteins and translation factors. Further investigation of the rmt5∆ mutant showed that Rmt5 is critical for the homeostasis of eIF2α and its phosphorylation state following 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-induced ribosome stalling. RNA sequencing of one rmt5∆ clone revealed stable chromosome 9 aneuploidy that was ameliorated by complementation but did not impact the rmt5∆ phenotype. As a result of these diverse interactions and functions, loss of RMT5 enhanced phagocytosis by murine macrophages and attenuated disease progression in mice. Taken together, our findings link arginine methylation to critical cryptococcal cellular processes that impact pathogenesis, including post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA- binding proteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ankita Arora ◽  
Raeann Goering ◽  
Hei Yong G. Lo ◽  
Joelle Lo ◽  
Charlie Moffatt ◽  

Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a widespread and conserved regulatory mechanism that generates diverse 3′ ends on mRNA. APA patterns are often tissue specific and play an important role in cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and response to stress. Many APA sites are found in 3′ UTRs, generating mRNA isoforms with different 3′ UTR contents. These alternate 3′ UTR isoforms can change how the transcript is regulated, affecting its stability and translation. Since the subcellular localization of a transcript is often regulated by 3′ UTR sequences, this implies that APA can also change transcript location. However, this connection between APA and RNA localization has only recently been explored. In this review, we discuss the role of APA in mRNA localization across distinct subcellular compartments. We also discuss current challenges and future advancements that will aid our understanding of how APA affects RNA localization and molecular mechanisms that drive these processes.

Membranes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Oleg V. Kondrashov ◽  
Peter I. Kuzmin ◽  
Sergey A. Akimov

Various cellular processes require the concerted cooperative action of proteins. The possibility for such synchronization implies the occurrence of specific long-range interactions between the involved protein participants. Bilayer lipid membranes can mediate protein–protein interactions via relatively long-range elastic deformations induced by the incorporated proteins. We considered the interactions between transmembrane peptides mediated by elastic deformations using the framework of the theory of elasticity of lipid membranes. An effective peptide shape was assumed to be cylindrical, hourglass-like, or barrel-like. The interaction potentials were obtained for membranes of different thicknesses and elastic rigidities. Cylindrically shaped peptides manifest almost neutral average interactions—they attract each other at short distances and repel at large ones, independently of membrane thickness or rigidity. The hourglass-like peptides repel each other in thin bilayers and strongly attract each other in thicker bilayers. On the contrary, the barrel-like peptides repel each other in thick bilayers and attract each other in thinner membranes. These results potentially provide possible mechanisms of control for the mode of protein–protein interactions in membrane domains with different bilayer thicknesses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Nan Yang ◽  
Yunna Zheng ◽  
Jiaolin Yue ◽  
Vijai Bhadauria ◽  

AbstractUbiquitination is a vital protein post-translational modification (PTM) prevalent in eukaryotes. This modification regulates multiple cellular processes through protein degradation mediated by the 26S proteasome or affecting protein–protein interaction and protein localization. Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blast disease, which is one of the most devastating crop diseases worldwide. In M. oryzae, ubiquitination plays important roles in growth, pathogenicity, stress response and effector-mediated plant-pathogen interaction. In this review, we summarize the roles of ubiquitination components in the above biological processes of M. oryzae, including single- or multi-subunit E3s, E2s, components of 26S proteasome and also deubiquitinating enzymes. The essential function of ubiquitination in plant-fungus interaction is also discussed. Moreover, this review presents several issues related to the ubiquitination system in M. oryzae, which need to be further explored in future researches.

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009991
Ipek Altinoglu ◽  
Guillaume Abriat ◽  
Alexis Carreaux ◽  
Lucía Torres-Sánchez ◽  
Mickaël Poidevin ◽  

In rod-shaped bacteria, the emergence and maintenance of long-axis cell polarity is involved in key cellular processes such as cell cycle, division, environmental sensing and flagellar motility among others. Many bacteria achieve cell pole differentiation through the use of polar landmark proteins acting as scaffolds for the recruitment of functional macromolecular assemblies. In Vibrio cholerae a large membrane-tethered protein, HubP, specifically interacts with proteins involved in chromosome segregation, chemotaxis and flagellar biosynthesis. Here we used comparative proteomics, genetic and imaging approaches to identify additional HubP partners and demonstrate that at least six more proteins are subject to HubP-dependent polar localization. These include a cell-wall remodeling enzyme (DacB), a likely chemotaxis sensory protein (HlyB), two presumably cytosolic proteins of unknown function (VC1210 and VC1380) and two membrane-bound proteins, named here MotV and MotW, that exhibit distinct effects on chemotactic motility. We show that while both ΔmotW and ΔmotV mutants retain monotrichous flagellation, they present significant to severe motility defects when grown in soft agar. Video-tracking experiments further reveal that ΔmotV cells can swim in liquid environments but are unable to tumble or penetrate a semisolid matrix, whereas a motW deletion affects both tumbling frequency and swimming speed. Motility suppressors and gene co-occurrence analyses reveal co-evolutionary linkages between MotV, a subset of non-canonical CheV proteins and flagellar C-ring components FliG and FliM, whereas MotW regulatory inputs appear to intersect with specific c-di-GMP signaling pathways. Together, these results reveal an ever more versatile role for the landmark cell pole organizer HubP and identify novel mechanisms of motility regulation.

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