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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
Minmin Du ◽  
Firas Bou Daher ◽  
Yuanyuan Liu ◽  
Andrew Steward ◽  
Molly Tillmann ◽  

Auxin concentration–dependent cell expansion coordinates hypocotyl elongation and apical hook development for soil emergence.

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009991
Ipek Altinoglu ◽  
Guillaume Abriat ◽  
Alexis Carreaux ◽  
Lucía Torres-Sánchez ◽  
Mickaël Poidevin ◽  

In rod-shaped bacteria, the emergence and maintenance of long-axis cell polarity is involved in key cellular processes such as cell cycle, division, environmental sensing and flagellar motility among others. Many bacteria achieve cell pole differentiation through the use of polar landmark proteins acting as scaffolds for the recruitment of functional macromolecular assemblies. In Vibrio cholerae a large membrane-tethered protein, HubP, specifically interacts with proteins involved in chromosome segregation, chemotaxis and flagellar biosynthesis. Here we used comparative proteomics, genetic and imaging approaches to identify additional HubP partners and demonstrate that at least six more proteins are subject to HubP-dependent polar localization. These include a cell-wall remodeling enzyme (DacB), a likely chemotaxis sensory protein (HlyB), two presumably cytosolic proteins of unknown function (VC1210 and VC1380) and two membrane-bound proteins, named here MotV and MotW, that exhibit distinct effects on chemotactic motility. We show that while both ΔmotW and ΔmotV mutants retain monotrichous flagellation, they present significant to severe motility defects when grown in soft agar. Video-tracking experiments further reveal that ΔmotV cells can swim in liquid environments but are unable to tumble or penetrate a semisolid matrix, whereas a motW deletion affects both tumbling frequency and swimming speed. Motility suppressors and gene co-occurrence analyses reveal co-evolutionary linkages between MotV, a subset of non-canonical CheV proteins and flagellar C-ring components FliG and FliM, whereas MotW regulatory inputs appear to intersect with specific c-di-GMP signaling pathways. Together, these results reveal an ever more versatile role for the landmark cell pole organizer HubP and identify novel mechanisms of motility regulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Cliff J. Luke ◽  
Stephanie Markovina ◽  
Misty Good ◽  
Ira E. Wight ◽  
Brian J. Thomas ◽  

AbstractLysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin release typifies lysosome-dependent cell death (LDCD). However, LMP occurs in most regulated cell death programs suggesting LDCD is not an independent cell death pathway, but is conscripted to facilitate the final cellular demise by other cell death routines. Previously, we demonstrated that Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) null for a cysteine protease inhibitor, srp-6, undergo a specific LDCD pathway characterized by LMP and cathepsin-dependent cytoplasmic proteolysis. We designated this cell death routine, lysoptosis, to distinguish it from other pathways employing LMP. In this study, mouse and human epithelial cells lacking srp-6 homologues, mSerpinb3a and SERPINB3, respectively, demonstrated a lysoptosis phenotype distinct from other cell death pathways. Like in C. elegans, this pathway depended on LMP and released cathepsins, predominantly cathepsin L. These studies suggested that lysoptosis is an evolutionarily-conserved eukaryotic LDCD that predominates in the absence of neutralizing endogenous inhibitors.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 339
Janina Remy ◽  
Benedikt Linder ◽  
Ulrike Weirauch ◽  
Bryan W. Day ◽  
Brett W. Stringer ◽  

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a devastating disease and the most common primary brain malignancy of adults with a median survival barely exceeding one year. Recent findings suggest that the antipsychotic drug pimozide triggers an autophagy-dependent, lysosomal type of cell death in GBM cells with possible implications for GBM therapy. One oncoprotein that is often overactivated in these tumors and associated with a particularly dismal prognosis is Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). Here, we used isogenic human and murine GBM knockout cell lines, advanced fluorescence microscopy, transcriptomic analysis and FACS-based assessment of cell viability to show that STAT3 has an underappreciated, context-dependent role in drug-induced cell death. Specifically, we demonstrate that depletion of STAT3 significantly enhances cell survival after treatment with Pimozide, suggesting that STAT3 confers a particular vulnerability to GBM. Furthermore, we show that active STAT3 has no major influence on the early steps of the autophagy pathway, but exacerbates drug-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and release of cathepsins into the cytosol. Collectively, our findings support the concept of exploiting the pro-death functions of autophagy and LMP for GBM therapy and to further determine whether STAT3 can be employed as a treatment predictor for highly apoptosis-resistant, but autophagy-proficient cancers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
William D. Tolbert ◽  
Dung N. Nguyen ◽  
Marina Tuyishime ◽  
Andrew R. Crowley ◽  
Yaozong Chen ◽  

Passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of human origin into Non-Human Primates (NHPs), especially those which function predominantly by a Fc-effector mechanism, requires an a priori preparation step, in which the human mAb is reengineered to an equivalent NHP IgG subclass. This can be achieved by changing both the Fc and Fab sequence while simultaneously maintaining the epitope specificity of the parent antibody. This Ab reengineering process, referred to as rhesusization, can be challenging because the simple grafting of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) into an NHP IgG subclass may impact the functionality of the mAb. Here we describe the successful rhesusization of a set of human mAbs targeting HIV-1 envelope (Env) epitopes involved in potent Fc-effector function against the virus. This set includes a mAb targeting a linear gp120 V1V2 epitope isolated from a RV144 vaccinee, a gp120 conformational epitope within the Cluster A region isolated from a RV305 vaccinated individual, and a linear gp41 epitope within the immunodominant Cys-loop region commonly targeted by most HIV-1 infected individuals. Structural analyses confirm that the rhesusized variants bind their respective Env antigens with almost identical specificity preserving epitope footprints and most antigen-Fab atomic contacts with constant regions folded as in control RM IgG1s. In addition, functional analyses confirm preservation of the Fc effector function of the rhesusized mAbs including the ability to mediate Antibody Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis by monocytes (ADCP) and neutrophils (ADNP) with potencies comparable to native macaque antibodies of similar specificity. While the antibodies chosen here are relevant for the examination of the correlates of protection in HIV-1 vaccine trials, the methods used are generally applicable to antibodies for other purposes.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Sreejita Ghosh ◽  
Dibyajit Lahiri ◽  
Moupriya Nag ◽  
Ankita Dey ◽  
Soumya Pandit ◽  

Increased resistance of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter sp. (ESKAPE) pathogens against various drugs has enhanced the urge for the development of alternate therapeutics. Quorum sensing (QS) is a density dependent cell-to-cell communication mechanism responsible for controlling pathogenicity with the regulation of gene expression. Thus, QS is considered a potential target for the development of newer anti-biofilm agents that do not depend on the utilization of antibiotics. Compounds with anti-QS effects are known as QS inhibitors (QSIs), and they can inhibit the QS mechanism that forms the major form in the development of bacterial pathogenesis. A diverse array of natural compounds provides a plethora of anti-QS effects. Over recent years, these natural compounds have gained importance as new strategies for combating the ESKAPE pathogens and inhibiting the genes involved in QS. Different pharmacognostical and pharmacological studies have been carried out so far for identification of novel drugs or for the discovery of their unique structures that may help in developing more effective anti-biofilm therapies. The main objective of this review is to discuss the various natural compounds, so far identified and their employed mechanisms in hindering the genes responsible for QS leading to bacterial pathogenesis.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 74
Carolyne Lespay-Rebolledo ◽  
Andrea Tapia-Bustos ◽  
Ronald Perez-Lobos ◽  
Valentina Vio ◽  
Emmanuel Casanova-Ortiz ◽  

Labor and delivery entail a complex and sequential metabolic and physiologic cascade, culminating in most circumstances in successful childbirth, although delivery can be a risky episode if oxygen supply is interrupted, resulting in perinatal asphyxia (PA). PA causes an energy failure, leading to cell dysfunction and death if re-oxygenation is not promptly restored. PA is associated with long-term effects, challenging the ability of the brain to cope with stressors occurring along with life. We review here relevant targets responsible for metabolic cascades linked to neurodevelopmental impairments, that we have identified with a model of global PA in rats. Severe PA induces a sustained effect on redox homeostasis, increasing oxidative stress, decreasing metabolic and tissue antioxidant capacity in vulnerable brain regions, which remains weeks after the insult. Catalase activity is decreased in mesencephalon and hippocampus from PA-exposed (AS), compared to control neonates (CS), in parallel with increased cleaved caspase-3 levels, associated with decreased glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity, a shift towards the TIGAR-dependent pentose phosphate pathway, and delayed calpain-dependent cell death. The brain damage continues long after the re-oxygenation period, extending for weeks after PA, affecting neurons and glial cells, including myelination in grey and white matter. The resulting vulnerability was investigated with organotypic cultures built from AS and CS rat newborns, showing that substantia nigra TH-dopamine-positive cells from AS were more vulnerable to 1 mM of H2O2 than those from CS animals. Several therapeutic strategies are discussed, including hypothermia; N-acetylcysteine; memantine; nicotinamide, and intranasally administered mesenchymal stem cell secretomes, promising clinical translation.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Gustavo Luis Verón ◽  
María Florencia Veiga ◽  
Mónica Cameo ◽  
Clara Isabel Marín-Briggiler ◽  
Mónica Hebe Vazquez-Levin

Successful mammalian fertilization requires a well-orchestrated sequence of molecular events leading to gamete fusion. Since this interaction involves Ca2+-dependent adhesion events, the participation of the Ca+2-dependent cell-cell adhesion proteins Epithelial (E-cad) and Neural (N-cad) cadherin is envisaged. We have previously reported the expression of E-cad and N-cad in human gametes and showed evidence of their involvement in sperm-oocyte adhesion events leading to fertilization. To overcome ethical limitations associated with the use of human gametes in fertilization-related studies, the mouse has been selected worldwide as the experimental model for over 4 decades. Herein, we report a detailed study aimed at characterizing the expression of E-cad and N-cad in murine gametes and their involvement in murine fertilization using specific antibodies and blocking peptides towards both adhesion proteins. E-cad and N-cad protein forms, as well as other members of the adhesion complex, specifically β-catenin and actin, were identified in spermatozoa, cumulus cells and oocytes protein extracts by means of Western immunoblotting. In addition, subcellular localization of these proteins was determined in whole cells using optical fluorescent microscopy. Gamete pre-incubation with anti-E-cad (ECCD-1) or N-cad (H-63) antibodies resulted in decreased (p < 0.05) In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) rates, when using both cumulus-oocytes complexes and cumulus-free oocytes. Moreover, IVF assays done with denuded oocytes and either antibodies or blocking peptides against E-cad and N-cad led to lower (p < 0.05) fertilization rates. When assessing each step, penetration of the cumulus mass was lower (p < 0.05) when spermatozoa were pre-incubated with ECCD-1 or blocking peptides towards E-cad or towards both E- and N-cad. Moreover, sperm-oolemma binding was impaired (p < 0.0005) after sperm pre-incubation with E-cad antibody or blocking peptide towards E-cad, N-cad or both proteins. Finally, sperm-oocyte fusion was lower (p < 0.05) after sperm pre-incubation with either antibody or blocking peptide against E-cad or N-cad. Our studies demonstrate the expression of members of the adherent complex in the murine model, and the use of antibodies and specific peptides revealed E-cad and N-cad participation in mammalian fertilization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Chiragkumar J. Gohil ◽  
Malleshappa N. Noolvi ◽  
Chhaganbhai N. Patel ◽  
Dhrubo Jyoti Sen

Activation of the oncogenes and inhibition of the apoptotic function of the p53 protein is a gateway for the cancer genesis. Interaction of the MDM2 protein with p53 protein is responsible for the inhibition of the p53 function. Inhibiting the p53-MDM2 interaction by drug will lead to the p53 release in the cancer cells. And can restart the apoptosis in the cancer cell. Computational methods successfully used for the design and development of the new, potent MDM2 inhibitors. Researchers and pharma companies used rational approach like target-based drug design or ligand-based drug design to develop the novel MDM2 inhibitors. The number of MDM2 inhibitors, has been designed by the computer-aided drug design and in-silico studies. In clinical studies, MDM2 inhibitors are led by RG7112. RG7112 completed its phase-1 trials in 2016, and recently it is under phase-2 trials. Along with RG7112, the number of potent MDM2 inhibitors entered the clinical trials successfully. It indicates the successful development of this class (MDM2 inhibitors). MDM2 inhibitors were found very effective in various studies for the treatment of various kinds of cancers. They have good selectivity for the tumor cells over the normal cells. It induced the dose dependent cell cycle arrest only; in the normal cells. In studies, MDM2 inhibitors successfully detached the p53 protein from the MDM2 protein. And restart the cell-killing function of the p53 protein in the cancer cells. Hence, MDM2 inhibitors can selectively kill the cancer cells over the normal cells.

2021 ◽  
pp. 782-824
Ricardo Gobato ◽  
Abhijit Mitra

Using samples of small cell lung tumors, a research team led by biologist Dr. Raymond discovered two new ways to induce tumor cell death. By activating ferroptosis, one of two subtypes of tumor cells can be targeted: first, iron-dependent cell death due to oxidative stress, and second, oxidative stress. Therefore, cell death can also be induced in a different way. Both types of cell death must be caused by drugs at the same time to eliminate the majority of the tumor mass. Keywords: Cancer; Cells; Tissues; Tumors; Prevention; Prognosis; Diagnosis; Imaging; Screening, Treatment; Management

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