Security Issues
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2021 ◽  
Angelyn Lao ◽  
Kathleen Aviso ◽  
Heriberto Cabezas ◽  
Raymond Tan

Abstract Co-culture systems can address food security issues by intensifying production of crops and animal protein without requiring additional land area. We show how a graph-theoretic optimization model based on ecological network analysis can determine resilient co-culture strategies by controlling the presence of key species. Results of simulations on a hybrid rice and crayfish production system indicate that comparable levels of productivity can be achieved with different ecological system structures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Deina Kellezi ◽  
Christian Boegelund ◽  
Weizhi Meng

In 2015, the European Union passed the PSD2 regulation, with the aim of transferring ownership of bank accounts to the private person. As a result, Open Banking has become an emerging concept, which provides third-party financial service providers open access to bank APIs, including consumer banking, transaction, and other financial data. However, such openness may also incur many security issues, especially when the data can be exposed by an API to a third party. Focused on this challenge, the primary goal of this work is to develop one innovative web solution to the market. We advocate that the solution should be able to trigger transactions based on goals and actions, allowing users to save up money while encouraging positive habits. In particular, we propose a solution with an architectural model that ensures clear separation of concern and easy integration with Nordea’s (the largest bank in the Nordics) Open Banking APIs (sandbox version), and a technological stack with the microframework Flask, the cloud application platform Heroku, and persistent data storage layer using Postgres. We analyze and map the web application’s security threats and determine whether or not the technological frame can provide suitable security level, based on the OWASP Top 10 threats and threat modelling methodology. The results indicate that many of these security measures are either handled automatically by the components offered by the technical stack or are easily preventable through included packages of the Flask Framework. Our findings can support future developers and industries working with web applications for Open Banking towards improving security by choosing the right frameworks and considering the most important vulnerabilities.

Jenny Luo ◽  
Shelley White-Means

Health disparities cause a higher rate of diabetes development in poor and minority groups and also limit the care these people receive. Smartphone applications (apps) may be a low-cost, accessible resource to patients with diabetes who experience barriers to traditional health care. Currently, little is known about using health apps to help underserved patients in the United States. This study aimed to investigate the willingness to use diabetes apps in patients with limited access to primary care providers. Fifteen personal interviews were collected and analyzed according to the interpretative phenomenological analysis framework. The interviews produced three overall themes: (1) Despite having little previous knowledge about health apps, patients were all willing to try at least one diabetes-related app; (2) app functions should be individualized to each patient’s needs for maximum benefit; and (3) barriers to app use were varied but commonly included knowledge and technological challenges and security issues. Underserved patients with diabetes expressed a willingness to try health apps, despite limited experience with the technology. Choosing apps individualized to each patient’s needs, instead of a blanket multifunctional app, would provide the greatest benefit for patient-driven diabetes management. Smartphone apps may be a feasible, low-cost resource for patients with limited access to traditional healthcare.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (3) ◽  
pp. 459-471
Nikos Moudouros

The importance of the Eastern Mediterranean for the Turkish state is diachronic. In recent years, however, a renewed interest of Ankara is being recorded as a result of the developments in the energy sphere. This is expressed through various forms of interventionist policy of Turkey in the area. This article examines the reshaping of Turkeys geopolitical dogma and its connection with Turkish perception of the Eastern Mediterranean. It examines the impact of the failed coup attempt in 2016 on the ruling power bloc and its reflections in the Turkish geopolitical doctrine. In this framework the article explores the reinstatement of the need for survival of the state ( devletin bekası ) as a result of the reshaping of the ruling coalition and the legitimisation of the attempt to strengthen the authority of the state. At the same time, the ideological construction of the Eastern Mediterranean is important, as it can reveal the process of construction of security issues or the instrumentalisation of real threats through which geopolitical orientation is reshaped and specific policies are implemented. This study consequently reviews the identification of the Eastern Mediterranean with a wider hostile region and analyses the functioning of the blue homeland concept as a legitimising axis of Turkish politics. The concept of blue homeland is examined in conjunction with internal developments in Turkey and especially the change of balance in the power bloc. Finally, the last part of the article analyses the ideological legitimisation of the blue homeland concept in Turkeys strategy for the Eastern Mediterranean. Through these dynamics, the change in Ankaras perception of the Turkish Cypriot community and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is also identified.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (7) ◽  
pp. 1-34
Sophie Dramé-Maigné ◽  
Maryline Laurent ◽  
Laurent Castillo ◽  
Hervé Ganem

The Internet of Things is taking hold in our everyday life. Regrettably, the security of IoT devices is often being overlooked. Among the vast array of security issues plaguing the emerging IoT, we decide to focus on access control, as privacy, trust, and other security properties cannot be achieved without controlled access. This article classifies IoT access control solutions from the literature according to their architecture (e.g., centralized, hierarchical, federated, distributed) and examines the suitability of each one for access control purposes. Our analysis concludes that important properties such as auditability and revocation are missing from many proposals while hierarchical and federated architectures are neglected by the community. Finally, we provide an architecture-based taxonomy and future research directions: a focus on hybrid architectures, usability, flexibility, privacy, and revocation schemes in serverless authorization.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 5934
Paweł Ziemba ◽  
Aneta Becker ◽  
Jarosław Becker

Energy security is of key importance for states and international organizations. An important issue in energy security is the assessment of current and future energy security methods. While the assessment of the current methods is relatively easy, since it is based on recent information, the assessment of the future methods is burdened with uncertainty and is therefore much more difficult. Therefore, the aim of the article is to develop a new approach for assessing current and future energy security issues based on a complex security index, supported by the computationally transparent fuzzy multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method. The use of the fuzzy MCDA methods allows one to capture the uncertainty of assessments and forecasts, and the forecasts themselves were based on the Holt’s method; the international energy security risk index (IESRI) was used as the source of the data to generate the forecasts. The research compared two data sources for forecasts (IESRI categories and metrics) and two methods of forecast fuzzification. As a result, the forecasted assessments and rankings of energy security for the 2020–2030 period were obtained. On the basis of these forecasts, general trends shaping energy security were also indicated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Qiaolin Yu ◽  
Xiaofei Liu ◽  
Sihui Li ◽  
Lei Hou ◽  
Chengdong Zhu ◽  

The wireless sensor network has developed rapidly in recent years. It is formed by the intersection of multiple disciplines. It integrates embedded technology, sensor technology, distributed technology, wireless communication technology, and modern networks. It is a brand new information acquisition platform. The characteristics of sensor networks determine that information fusion technology is a hot spot in the research of wireless sensor networks. Information fusion can achieve high performance and low cost in terms of energy and communication, which is of great significance to the research of sensor networks. This paper is aimed at studying the semantic-based sports music information fusion and retrieval research in wireless sensor networks. WSNs may face various attacks including eavesdropping attacks, replay attacks, Sybil attacks, and DOS attacks. Therefore, they are designing sensor network solutions. It is necessary to consider the network security issues. This article summarizes and analyzes the existing WSN security data fusion solutions for this issue and compares them by classification. This paper proposes methods and theories such as the spatial correlation detection algorithm, CBA algorithm, FTD algorithm, and DFWD algorithm, which enriches the research of information fusion and retrieval in wireless sensor networks, which is of exploratory significance, and it also establishes this problem. The model was studied, and reliable data was obtained. The experimental results of this paper show that when using these methods to diagnose faults in WSN, the correct rate of model diagnosis is higher than 77%.

2021 ◽  
pp. 175508822110464
Hedvig Ördén

The contemporary debate in democracies routinely refers to online misinformation, disinformation, and deception, as security-issues in need of urgent attention. Despite this pervasive discourse, however, policymakers often appear incapable of articulating what security means in this context. This paper argues that we must understand the unique practical and normative challenges to security actualized by such online information threats, when they arise in a democratic context. Investigating security-making in the nexus between technology and national security through the concept of “cybersovereignty,” the paper highlights a shared blind spot in the envisaged protection of national security and democracy in cyberspace. Failing to consider the implications of non-territoriality in cyberspace, the “cybersovereign” approach runs into a cul de sac. Security-making, when understood as the continuous constitution of “cybersovereign” boundaries presumes the existence of a legitimate securitizing actor; however, this actor can only be legitimate as a product of pre-existing boundaries. In response to the problems outlined, the article proposes an alternative object of protection in the form of human judgment and, specifically, “political judgment” in the Arendtian sense. The turn to political judgment offers a conceptualization of security that can account for contemporary policy practises in relation to security and the online information threat, as well as for the human communicating subject in the interactive and essentially incomplete information and communication environment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-38
Selin Kabacaoğlu ◽  
Fulya Memişoğlu

With the growing importance of human mobility in the global agenda since the early 1990s, international migration has increasingly evolved into a securitized phenomenon. This has also made international migrantsa prominent target group of security speech acts. The main objective of this study is to explore migration-security nexus in the context of political discourses. The paper brings a comparative perspective to the role of political leader discourses in the securitization of migration by examining the cases of the United States (USA), hosting the largest number of international migrants, and Turkey, the world’s top refugee hosting country. Through the analytical lens of critical discourse analysis (CDA) and securitization theory, the study unpacks the rhetoric used by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and American President Donald John Trump towards migrants/ asylum seekers. As the key findings demonstrate, the way the two leaders reflect the migration-security relationship to their speech acts significantly varies. President Trump associates migrants with security issues in multiple ways including social, political and economic spheres, while President Erdoğan’s discourse links migrants with security issues inthe economic realm, but his general discourse reflects a desecuritization approach. In both countries, it is observed that the discourses of political leaders concerning migrants and asylum seekers exert influence on public opinion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Da Lu ◽  
Xueqing Wu ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Chenghao Ma ◽  
Baoqing Pei ◽  

Nanoparticles play a vital role in bone tissue repair engineering, especially iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), which have magnetic properties, semiconductor properties, and nontoxicity at the same time, and their applications in biomedicine have received widespread attention. This review summarizes the excellent performance of IONPs in enhancing scaffold functions, promoting stem cell differentiation, and labeling positioning, in order to understand the research progress and future development trends of IONPs in bone tissue repair engineering, as well as the security issues. Firstly, IONPs can affect the expression of genes and proteins to accelerate the process of biomineralization under a magnetic field. Then, the composite of IONPs and polymers can synthesize a scaffold which can promote the attachment, proliferation, and bone differentiation of stem cells. Furthermore, IONPs can also mark the location of drugs in the body to follow up the process of bone repair. Therefore, extensive research on the manufacturing and application range of IONPs is of great significance to bone tissue repair engineering.

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