This study presents the linguistic and semantic realizations of the concept of living places in the Old Bulgarian classical and original works from the 9th – 11th centuries and in the works of Patriarch Euthymius. A system of words and collocations and their use in different contexts are analyzed in view of their relation to Christian culture and the medieval picture of the world. The author traces the process of enrichment of the names for living places and the changes in the conceptual content of the studied words and collocations.
Keywords: names for living places, medieval conceptosphere, history of the Bulgarian literary language
The first three papers featured in Issue 4/2021 of Balgarski ezik present results of the work on a project titled Everyday Life in the Middle Ages according to Lexical Data from Bulgarian and Romanian – a bilateral effort between the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Romanian Academy.
Mariyana Tsibranska-Kostova’s paper Magic and its Faces (the 61st Canon of Trullo in Slavic Translations) proposes an analysis of several representatives of the lexical-semantic group of performers of magical practices according to three translations of the canon. The author discusses the word-formation structure of the lexical group as well as the semantic adaptation of Greek names for unknown realia. The text of the 61st Canon of Trullo is published as an appendix.
Elka Mircheva provides a discussion on the topic of Bad Thoughts are Worse than Illness (to the Analysis of Medieval Texts) by analysing examples of illness in Pope Gregory the Great’s Dialogues which have been interpreted by earlier studies as cases of psychological conditions. The author’s analysis points to the fact that some of these occurrences are evidence of the influence of bad thoughts resulting in unacceptable reprehen-sible behaviour.
Vanya Micheva’s paper Names for Living Places in the Bulgarian Language Picture of the World in the Middle Ages deals with the linguistic and semantic realisations of the concept of living places in the Old Bulgarian classical and original works from the 9th – 11th centuries and in the works of Patriarch Euthymius. The author traces the process of enrichment of the names for living places and the changes in the conceptual content of the studied lexemes.
Tatyana Braga’s paper A Little-known Damaskin from the Karlovo-Adzhar School of Calligraphy and Art: Odessa Damascus № 36 (62) – Palaeography, Codicology, Dating offers a meticulous palaeographic and codicological description of a Bulgarian written monument, the Odessa Damaskin № 36 (62) from the manuscript collection of V.I. Grigorovich.
Nadka Nikolova’s paper Общ язик с виражение народно. The Language Norms in the Translation of A. Granitski’s За Тръговско писмописанїе (On Commercial Letter Writing), 1858 presents the results of a study on Anastas Granitski’s contribution to the establishment of the structural basis and spelling and language norms of the Bulgarian literary language of the Revival period. On the basis of her observations on adjectives, numerals, pronouns and verbs, the author comes to the conclusion that the text reveals significant convergence of written and spoken language.
Maria Mitskova addresses some Issues in the Verb Morphology of Bulgarian Dialects in the Studies of Three European Slavicists from the First Half of the 19th Century – Vuk Karadžić, Victor Grigorovich, Stefan Verković. The paper emphasises the contribution of the first Slavicists whose work marks the origination of the scientific interest in one of the most characteristic features of Bulgarian verbs.
Elena Kanevska-Nikolova and Simeon Marinov present a study on the Names for Women’s Outerwear in the Rhodope Folk Clothing based on ma-terial excerpted from various ethnographic, regional historical and dialectological studies. The authors examine ambiguous and synonymous terms, main word-formation patterns, as well as the etymology of some of the names under study. They go on to analyse the terminological unity of many names for women’s outerwear characteristic of both confessional groups to which the Bulgarian population in the Rhodopes belong.
Georgi Mitrinov’s paper Is there a Pomak Dialect in Bulgaria? is a critical look at a study by Emel Balakchi dealing with the Bulgarian Rhodope dialects. The author addresses Balakchi’s attempt at presenting the Rhodope dialects as Pomak dialects, while ignoring the presence of a native Bulgarian Christian population in the Rhodopes. Using numerous examples, Georgi Mitrinov reveals the study’s lack of scientific competence and objectivity in presenting the characteristic features of the Bulgarian Rhodope dialects.
The issue concludes with a paper that remains outside its thematic scope. Stative Predicates in Contemporary Linguistic Theories by Svetlozara Leseva, Hristina Kukova and Ivelina Stoyanova offers a critical overview of the thematic classes of stative verbs based on a contrastive study of several thematic classifications. The authors analyse the different views of the properties of stative predicates from an aspectual and semantic perspective.
В статье публикуются петроглифы местонахождения Абакано - Перевоз 1, являющегося частью крупного петроглифического комплекса, расположенного на скальных выходах хребта Большие Бояры в Хакасии. Публикация является результатом многолетних работ на памятнике, связанных с исследованием, расчисткой от лишайника, документированием древних рисунков. В статье приводится хронологическая атрибуция выявленных петроглифов. Первые рисунки появились здесь в раннетагарское время. Выявлены петроглифы тесинского, таштыкского времени, эпохи средневековья, этнографического времени.
The article publishes petroglyphs of Abakano - Perevoz 1 site. It is а part of a large petroglyphic complex located on the Bolshie Boyary Ridge in Khakassia. The publication is the result of long - term work at the site, which is related to research, clearing of lichen, documenting of ancient petroglyphs. The article publishes a chronological attribution of the identifi ed petroglyphs. The earliest petroglyphs appeared here in the early Tagar time. The petroglyphs of the Tes and the Tashtyk cultures, the Middle Ages, ethnographic time were discovered here.
In a world where princesses found themselves enslaved, kidnapped boys became army generals, and biblical Joseph was a role model, this book narrates the formation of the Middle Ages from the point of view of slavery, and outlines a new approach to enhance our understanding of modern forms of enslavement. Offering an analysis of recent scholarship and an array of sources, never before studied together, from distinct societies and cultures of the first millennium, it challenges the traditional dichotomy between ancient and medieval slaveries. Revealing the dynamic, versatile, and adaptable character of slavery it presents an innovative definition of slavery as a historical process.
AbstractThis article presents the history of the water supply system in Grudziądz (Poland) over the centuries, from the Middle Ages to the end of the nineteenth century. The location of Grudziądz on the high escarpment of the Vistula River made it difficult to supply water to the town. The innovative technical facilities, such as a water-work and water supply tower had to be constructed because the gravitational waterworks could not be applied. The basis for the research was the analysis of historical sources. In this study, non-invasive methods were used (aerial prospection, LiDAR scanning and geophysical surveys with Ground Penetrating Radar), since the hydrotechnical objects are located in a functioning urban space and no excavations could be carried out. The research included: (i) the measurements, exploration and preparation of photo-documentation of the water tower, (ii) providing a digital model of the tower, (iii) finding the tunnel inside the tower, and (iv) attempting to locate the tunnel's course outside the tower.
RESUMEN: Entre los materiales que los Libros de Emblemas utilizaron para llevar a cabo el propósito de instruir a sus receptores, están los discursos sobre animales fabulosos que los autores recopilaron y adaptaron de diversas fuentes literarias pertenecientes a la Antigüedad clásica y a la Edad Media. Por esta razón la emblemática también es el producto de la asimilación del conocimiento anterior que se tiene sobre animales reales o no. En este tenor, el objetivo de este artículo es comprobar, a través de ejemplos que provienen de la animalia fabulosa, que las representaciones emblemáticas de estos libros asimilan la información proveniente de los antiguos doctos para otorgarles renovada continuidad en cuanto a la función y simbología de las descripciones zoológicas. Para lo anterior, recurriré al análisis del ave fénix, el basilisco y el dragón en el contexto antes mencionado.
ABSTRACT: Among the materials that the Emblem Books used to carry out the purpose of instructing their recipients are the discourses on fabulous animals that the authors compiled and adapted from various literary sources belonging to classical antiquity and the Middle Ages. For this reason, emblematic is also the product of the assimilation of previous knowledge about real or not real animals. In this sense, the aim of this article is to prove that the emblematic representations of these books assimilate the information coming from the ancient scholars to give them renewed continuity in terms of the function and symbolism of zoological descriptions. For the above, I will resort to the analysis of the phoenix, the basilisk and the dragon in the aforementioned context.
Throughout the Middle Ages, waves of people came to the lands once been a part of the Roman Empire. At the same time, lands yet unknown encountered the successors of the Empire. These gentes sometimes preserved a long history of their paths to their new homelands. The Longobards, the Saxons, and many others had an origo gentis, where gods played an important role. These narrations were incorporated into a historiography that was almost entirely Christian.
This article is concerned with the methods used to find harmony between the past and present by Alberic of Trois-Fontaines when writing about the Semigallians. The narrative of their origins used established motifs and themes that made it possible to include the invented history of the gens into the then-established universal history. This was done through the etymology of names or the erudite use of the writings of other authors. These new gentes were grafted onto the trees of old tales.