Word Formation
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2021 ◽  
Vol 68 (02) ◽  
pp. 13-22
Boris Parashkevov

The article presents a project dealing with surnames in Bulgarian. The aim is to compile a lexicon encoding the existing semantic and structural relations among names. Family names are presented in nests based on certain semantic and structural criteria, in particular semantic identity, associative reference and thematic or typological relation-ship. The attested word-formative paradigm is supplied for each name, including short forms, diminutives and derivatives. The lexicon will offer an opportunity for further semantic, etymological, stylistic and word-formation research into Bulgarian family names.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 204-212
Vitalis Kandie

This study sought to investigate the Kenyan generated neologisms as used in social media. This study was informed by the fact that human language is a dynamic and an ever-changing phenomenon only stable in performing its communicative function. The researcher conducted a Facebook survey as a representation of other social networking channels. The researcher purposely sampled 50 neologisms of Kenyan origin on Facebook and thereafter, using a descriptive qualitative data analysis approach, made a description of one of the commonest sites of social networking in Kenya, people from various walks of life engage on a litany of matters concerning their lives, be it political, socio-economic or even personal. Facebook was chosen explicitly for its wider outreach among Kenyans in comparison to other social networking channels. 50 neologisms belonging to Kenyan origin were purposively sampled on Facebook aftermath; a descriptive method of data analysis approach was used, to make a description of the word-formation processes, which are involved in their generation. A vast number of neologisms on Facebook belonging to Kenyan origin could be identified and documented by the study, most of them laced with a local flavour. Furthermore, the study analysed the word-formation processes that were involved in their development. Some of the neologisms with Kenyan origin documented in this study are; uhunye, saitan, isorait amongst others while some of the most common word formation processes employed include; loan translation, error, compounding and others. This study advocates for research on how words and expressions from indigenous Kenyan languages are being adopted in multicultural discourse among the diverse members of the Kenyan speech community through social media and general cross-cultural interactions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (6) ◽  
pp. 157
Jari Jussila ◽  
Anu Helena Suominen ◽  
Atte Partanen ◽  
Tapani Honkanen

The dissemination of disinformation and fabricated content on social media is growing. Yet little is known of what the functional Twitter data analysis methods are for languages (such as Finnish) that include word formation with endings and word stems together with derivation and compounding. Furthermore, there is a need to understand which themes linked with misinformation—and the concepts related to it—manifest in different countries and language areas in Twitter discourse. To address this issue, this study explores misinformation and its related concepts: disinformation, fake news, and propaganda in Finnish language tweets. We utilized (1) word cloud clustering, (2) topic modeling, and (3) word count analysis and clustering to detect and analyze misinformation-related concepts and themes connected to those concepts in Finnish language Twitter discussions. Our results are two-fold: (1) those concerning the functional data analysis methods and (2) those about the themes connected in discourse to the misinformation-related concepts. We noticed that each utilized method individually has critical limitations, especially all the automated analysis methods processing for the Finnish language, yet when combined they bring value to the analysis. Moreover, we discovered that politics, both internal and external, are prominent in the Twitter discussions in connection with misinformation and its related concepts of disinformation, fake news, and propaganda.

SEEU Review ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 66-79
Jeta Hamzai

Abstract Due to new innovations and changes, every language needs new words simply because there is a need for new words to name new things. It is a common occurrence for a speaker to use some words in a way that has never been used before in order to communicate directly about certain facts or ideas. When new inventions and changes come into people’s lives, there is a need to name them and talk about them. If a new word is used by many speakers of the language, it will probably survive, and the same word will one day become an everyday word and enter the vocabulary of a language. This paper looks at compounding as one of the most productive word formation process in English. The term compounding refers to a process in which two or more lexemes are combined into one new word. When a word is formed by merging two or more words, each of which can be used separately, it is called a compound word. The term “word formation” has no universally accepted use. Word formation is sometimes defined as a process associated with changing the form of a word, for example, affixation, which is, in fact, the subject of morphology. In a broader sense, word formation covers the processes of creating new lexical items. In English, word formation is of great importance because this phenomenon affects the English dictionary, which in addition to borrowing from various other languages is enriched in this way. The aim of this paper was to investigate the context based vs. non-context interpretation of English compounds by EFL students in legal discourse. The findings from the test run-questionnaire showed that students of English as a foreign language found it more difficult to apply compound words in context rather than choosing an appropriate definition for them, with or without a given context. Furthermore, students scored lower when 50% of the compounds were given in context.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Camiel Hamans

Abstract This paper discusses morphological borrowing from American-English to Dutch. Three processes of non-morphemic word formation are studied: embellished clipping (Afro from African), libfixing (extracting segments from opaque wordforms such -topia from utopia and -(po)calypse from apocalypse) and blending (stagflation < stagnation + inflation). It will be shown that the borrowing of these processes started with borrowing of English lexical material followed by a process of reinterpretation, which subsequently led to the (re-)introduction of the processes in Dutch. Therefore, the traditional distinction between MAT and PAT borrowing turns out to be inadequate. Instead of a clear-cut difference between lexical and morphological borrowing a borrowing cline will be proposed. The respective ends of this cline are MAT and PAT.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 193
Rahmad Hidayat

This research is here to explain several forms of errors in the material module of the Pendidikan Profesi Guru Dalam Jabatan Tahun 2020. Research on the analysis of language errors in the PPG module has never been carried out.  In data collection, used the Listening method with the Note Technique.  The data are recorded in such a way in tabulations.  In analyzing the data, the Intralingual Matching method was used with HBS and HBB techniques. HBS and HBB techniques are realized by comparing between language data and applicable rules.  Furthermore, deviant linguistic data are classified based on the types of violations against linguistic rules and theories.  The presentation of the results of data analysis in this study is based on the taxonomy of linguistic categories in language error analysis.  The results showed that in the module I PPG Dalam Jabatan Tahun 2020 there were spelling errors in the form of punctuation errors, capital letters errors, italicization errors, and word writing errors; morphological errors in the form of word formation errors and word non-conformity; syntactic errors in the form of misuse of conjunctor and ineffective sentences.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (5) ◽  
pp. 162-167
Rahmawati ◽  

The research aims to look for word-formation from suffix -i and -pe and the prefix-ken. The problem of the research was whether the suffix -i and -ken and the prefix pe- can form transitive in sentences. This study used the qualitative approach. The complex predicate data were analyzed using the agih method which is part of the language itself which becomes the determining tool. This is an appropriate method of analyzing language. This study indicates that sentence formation in the Karo language initially uses the VOS word order. At the suffix-i, the transitive word order VOS is found, the suffix -ken used the VO word order and at the prefix pe- also used the VOS word order. The suffix -i was initially used with adjectives, intransitive verbs, and nouns to form a root word in the form of a locative transitive verb (referring to a place). If suffix –ken combined with a root word which is a group of adjectives, intransitive verbs, or nouns, the meaning becomes causative, making the sufferer become/do something. The prefix pe- functions to change adjectives, intransitive verbs, and nouns into transitive verbs. The derivative form produces a causative meaning.

Ismoilova Dilorom

The article reveals the contributions of William Shakespeare to the development of the English language. Author discusses structural features of  Shakespearean  neologisms and highlights semantic differences in terms of periods of English language. The study reveals the peculiarities of Shakespearean neologisms due to the standpoints of methods of analysis. The article targeted to clarify the neologisms made in the realm of morphological word-formation. The author utilized the observation method and conducted the qualitative research. The neologisms by the dramatist are divided into 4 categories considering their ways of formation. They are following: the neologisms that were coined by affixation; the neologisms that were minted by syntactic  way; originally new-born words; the neologisms that were coined by conversion.

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