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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 624
Ruozheng Wang ◽  
Fang Lin ◽  
Qiang Wei ◽  
Gang Niu ◽  
Hong-Xing Wang

This paper investigates the formation and propagation of defects in the heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystal diamond with a thick film achieving 500 µm on Ir (001)/Al2O3 substrate. The growth of diamond follows the Volmer–Weber mode, i.e., initially shows the islands and subsequently coalesces to closed films. The films’ strain imposed by the substrate gradually relaxed as the film thickness increased. It was found that defects are mainly located at the diamond/Ir interface and are then mainly propagated along the [001] direction from the nucleation region. Etching pits along the [001] direction formed by H2/O2 plasma treatment were used to show defect distribution at the diamond/Ir/Al2O3 interface and in the diamond bulk, which revealed the reduction of etching pit density in diamond thick-film surface. These results show the evident impact of the thickness on the heteroepitaxially grown diamond films, which is of importance for various device applications.

Nano Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Shu Zhang ◽  
Jinbo Pang ◽  
Yufen Li ◽  
Feng Yang ◽  
Thomas Gemming ◽  

AbstractCarbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted great attentions in the field of electronics, sensors, healthcare, and energy conversion. Such emerging applications have driven the carbon nanotube research in a rapid fashion. Indeed, the structure control over CNTs has inspired an intensive research vortex due to the high promises in electronic and optical device applications. Here, this in-depth review is anticipated to provide insights into the controllable synthesis and applications of high-quality CNTs. First, the general synthesis and post-purification of CNTs are briefly discussed. Then, the state-of-the-art electronic device applications are discussed, including field-effect transistors, gas sensors, DNA biosensors, and pressure gauges. Besides, the optical sensors are delivered based on the photoluminescence. In addition, energy applications of CNTs are discussed such as thermoelectric energy generators. Eventually, future opportunities are proposed for the Internet of Things (IoT) oriented sensors, data processing, and artificial intelligence.

Juliana M. Vaz ◽  
Thiago B. Taketa ◽  
Jacobo Hernandez-Montelongo ◽  
Larissa M. C. G. Fiúza ◽  
Cristiano Rodrigues ◽  

Xing Zhao ◽  
JinXi Liu ◽  
ZhengHua Qian ◽  
CunFa Gao

Magnetoelectric (ME) sandwich structure is a common form in device applications. Poling directions of component materials are essential for the improvement of ME device properties. In this paper, the effects of the electric and magnetic poling directions on the interface fracture of a ME sandwich structure are investigated by integral transform and singular integral equation techniques. The expressions of the normalized stress intensity factors (NSIFs) are derived, and some numerical examples are presented. It is found that the poling direction of active layer can greatly affect the interface cracking mode. And the crack propagation can be promoted or impeded by adjusting the applied field. The structure with a larger volume fraction of active material will be more likely to crack.

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