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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sharon S. Wang ◽  
Kate Walsh ◽  
James Janford Li

While maltreatment is clearly associated with an elevated risk for depression in later life, not all maltreated youths develop depression. This study examined whether maltreated youths who exhibit single-domain resilience (low levels of depression) simultaneously demonstrate multi-domain resilience in fundamental adaptive systems, including interpersonal functioning and violence, substance abuse/dependency, physical health, and socioeconomic domains. Trajectories of depression (across ages 13-32) in maltreated and non-maltreated individuals were modeled using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. “Low,” “increasing,” and “declining” depression trajectories in both maltreated and non-maltreated individuals were identified. Yet, maltreated individuals in the “low” trajectory still had lower romantic relationship satisfaction, more exposure to intimate partner and sexual violence, more alcohol and marijuana abuse/dependency, and lower educational attainment relative to non-maltreated individuals in the “low” trajectory. Focusing on a single domain (i.e., depression) of resilience may obscure other impairments that maltreated children face in adulthood.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Author(s):  
Pryanka Boerio ◽  
Emma Garavaglia ◽  
Alessandra Gaia

Abstract The demographic landscape of European countries is rapidly changing because of population ageing; in this context, societies are called to offer older people opportunities to age actively. Although ‘active ageing’ has been broadly explored, there is still room to further our knowledge on the individual conditions that may favour or hinder activity in later life. This study aims to contribute to the literature in this field by focusing on the role of social capital. Specifically, it explores, through logistic regression models, how social capital and changes in social capital are associated with engagement in, the initiation of and continued participation in various domains of activity: volunteering and charity work, active participation in political or community-related organisations, informal care-giving and paid work. The data analysed stem from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). We focused on people aged 55+ participating in Waves 4–6. The key findings are: (a) having a larger social network is positively associated with participation in and the initiation of activities; (b) receiving social support (rarely) may stimulate reciprocity and thus care-giving; and (c) an increase in social network size is positively associated with initiation and maintenance of activities during later life.


Author(s):  
Charis Bridger Staatz ◽  
Yvonne Kelly ◽  
Rebecca E. Lacey ◽  
Joanna M. Blodgett ◽  
Anitha George ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The relation between socioeconomic position (SEP) and obesity measured by body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight for height, has been extensively reviewed in children, showing consistent associations between disadvantaged SEP and higher BMI in high-income countries (HICs) and lower BMI in middle-income countries (MICs). Fat mass (FM), a more accurate measure of adiposity, and fat-free mass (FFM) are not captured by BMI, but have been shown to track from childhood to adulthood, and be important for cardiovascular health and functional outcomes in later life. It is not clear whether body composition is associated with SEP. We systematically reviewed the association between SEP and body composition in childhood. Methods A systematic review was carried out following PRISMA guidelines. The protocol was pre-registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019119937). Original studies in the English language, which examined the association between SEP and body composition in childhood, were included. An electronic search of three databases was conducted. Two independent reviewers carried out screening, data extraction and quality assessment. Due to heterogeneity in results, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Heterogeneity in findings according to SEP, sex, body composition measure and country income level was investigated. Results 50 papers were included, the majority from HICs. No papers were from low-income countries. Disadvantage in childhood was associated with greater FM and lower FFM in HICs, but with lower FM and lower FFM in MICs. When measures of FFM indexed to height were used there was no evidence of associations with SEP. In HICs, more studies reported associations between disadvantaged SEP and higher FM among girls comparative to boys. Conclusions Inequalities in FM are evident in HICs and, in the opposite direction, in MICs and follow similar trends to inequalities for BMI. Inequalities in height are likely important in understanding inequalities in FFM.


Author(s):  
Altug Didikoglu ◽  
Nisha Nair ◽  
Andrew C. Robinson ◽  
Federico Roncaroli ◽  
Neil Pendleton ◽  
...  

Abstract Perinatal light exposure predisposes towards health and behaviour in adulthood. Season of birth is associated with psychiatric, allergic, cardiovascular and metabolic problems. It has been proposed that early-life environmental light disrupts the development of biological rhythms which, in turn, influence later-life health. However, the mechanisms linking perinatal seasonal light to later-life biological rhythm and health in humans are unknown. In this study, we investigated the association between season of birth and epigenome-wide DNA methylation of two postmortem human brain regions (16 hypothalamus, 14 temporal cortex). We did not find statistically significant differences at the whole epigenome level, either because we lacked statistical power or that no association exists. However, when we examined 24 CpG sites that had the highest significance or differential methylation, we identified regions which may be associated with circadian rhythm entrainment, cholinergic neurotransmission and neural development. Amongst methylation of the core clock genes, we identified that hypothalamus Neuronal PAS Domain Protein 2 (NPAS2) gene has hypermethylated regions in long photoperiod-born individuals. In addition, we found nominal associations between season of birth and genes linked to chronotype and narcolepsy. Season of birth-related brain DNA methylation profile was different than a previously reported blood methylation profile, suggesting a tissue-specific mechanism of perinatal light programming. Overall, we are the first to analyse the relationship between season of birth and human brain DNA methylation. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm an imprinting effect of perinatal light on the circadian clock.


Author(s):  
Parisa Montazeri ◽  
Serena Fossati ◽  
Diana B.P. Clemente ◽  
Lourdes Cirugeda ◽  
Roberto Elosua ◽  
...  

Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Overweight, obesity, and accelerated growth during early childhood have been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in later life. Few studies have assessed whether trajectories of accelerated growth in early childhood are associated with preclinical cardiovascular measurements. We aimed to evaluate the associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) growth trajectories and measures of macro- and microvascular function in early adolescence. Measurements of macrovascular function (systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and microvascular function (central retinal arteriolar/veinular equivalent) were assessed at 11 years old in a Spanish birth cohort study (n = 489). BMI trajectories from birth to 9 years were identified using latent class growth analysis. Multiple linear regression assessed the associations between the BMI trajectories and macro- and microvascular function. Compared to children with average birth size and slower BMI gain (reference), children with a lower birth size and accelerated BMI gain had increased SBP [β = 6.57; (95% CI 4.00, 9.15)], DBP [β = 3.65; (95% CI 1.45, 5.86)], and PWV [β = 0.14; (95% CI 0.01, 0.27)]. Children with higher birth size and accelerated BMI gain had increased SBP [β = 4.75; (95% CI 1.79, 7.71) compared to the reference. No significant associations between BMI trajectories and the microvascular measurements were observed. In conclusion, we found that childhood BMI trajectories characterized by accelerated growth are associated with preclinical macrovascular measurements in young adolescents.


2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (31) ◽  
pp. e2103896118
Author(s):  
Signe Hald Andersen ◽  
Leah S. Richmond-Rakerd ◽  
Terrie E. Moffitt ◽  
Avshalom Caspi

Despite overall improvements in health and living standards in the Western world, health and social disadvantages persist across generations. Using nationwide administrative databases linked for 2.1 million Danish citizens, we leveraged a three-generation approach to test whether multiple, different health and social disadvantages—poor physical health, poor mental health, social welfare dependency, criminal offending, and Child Protective Services involvement—were transmitted within families and whether education disrupted these statistical associations. Health and social disadvantages concentrated, aggregated, and accumulated within a small, high-need segment of families: Adults who relied disproportionately on multiple, different health and social services tended to have parents who relied disproportionately on multiple, different health and social services and tended to have children who evidenced risk for disadvantage at an early age, through appearance in protective services records. Intra- and intergenerational comparisons were consistent with the possibility that education disrupted this transmission. Within families, siblings who obtained more education were at a reduced risk for later-life disadvantage compared with their cosiblings who obtained less education, despite shared family background. Supporting the education potential of the most vulnerable citizens might mitigate the multigenerational transmission of multiple disadvantages and reduce health and social disparities.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (15) ◽  
pp. 7982
Author(s):  
Elena Rybnikova ◽  
Natalia Nalivaeva

Adaptation of organisms to stressors is coordinated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), which involves glucocorticoids (GCs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Although the effects of GCs are well characterized, their impact on brain adaptation to hypoxia/ischemia is still understudied. The brain is not only the most susceptible to hypoxic injury, but also vulnerable to GC-induced damage, which makes studying the mechanisms of brain hypoxic tolerance and resistance to stress-related elevation of GCs of great importance. Cross-talk between the molecular mechanisms activated in neuronal cells by hypoxia and GCs provides a platform for developing the most effective and safe means for prevention and treatment of hypoxia-induced brain damage, including hypoxic pre- and post-conditioning. Taking into account that hypoxia- and GC-induced reprogramming significantly affects the development of organisms during embryogenesis, studies of the effects of prenatal and neonatal hypoxia on health in later life are of particular interest. This mini review discusses the accumulated data on the dynamics of the HPA activation in injurious and non-injurious hypoxia, the role of the brain GRs in these processes, interaction of GCs and hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1, as well as cross-talk between GC and hypoxic signaling. It also identifies underdeveloped areas and suggests directions for further prospective studies.


Author(s):  
Luise Anne Cullen-McEwen ◽  
James van der Wolde ◽  
Kotaro Haruhara ◽  
Leon Tribolet ◽  
John Dowling ◽  
...  

Low birth weight is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), while adult podocyte depletion is a key event in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis. However, whether low birth weight due to poor maternal nutrition is associated with low podocyte endowment and glomerulosclerosis in later life is not known. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (NPD, 20%) or low (LPD, 8%) protein diet from 3 weeks before mating until postnatal day 21 (PN21), when kidneys from some male offspring were taken for quantitation of podocyte number and density in whole glomeruli using immunolabeling, tissue clearing and confocal microscopy. Remaining offspring were fed a normal or high fat diet until 6 months to induce catch-up growth and excessive weight gain, respectively. At PN21, podocyte number per glomerulus was 15% lower in low birth weight (LPD) than normal birthweight (NPD) offspring, with this deficit greater in outer glomeruli. Surprisingly, podocyte number in LPD offspring increased in outer glomeruli between PN21 and 6 months, although an overall 9% podocyte deficit persisted. Postnatal fat feeding to LPD offspring did not alter podometric indices or result in glomerular pathology at 6 months, whereas fat feeding in NPD offspring was associated with far greater body and fat mass as well as podocyte loss, reduced podocyte density, albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis. This is the first report that maternal diet can influence podocyte endowment. Our findings provide new insights into the impact of low birth weight, podocyte endowment and postnatal weight on podometrics and renal health in adulthood.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 122-138
Author(s):  
Abubakar Yakubu

A Comparative analysis of practices obtained between the Pondok and Tsangaya with regard to traditional Islamic education and spirituality in Malaysia and Nigeria, indicates that, despite areas of similarity in origin and evolution, there exist a unique area of sharp contrast in relation to later life spirituality and elder care. The article maintains that, despite the two systems sharing wider similarities of originating from the traditional system of Arabic and Islamic education, the Pondok provides a complete platform for the spiritual life cycle, with opportunities for devotion from childhood to death. The Tsangaya on the other hand, covers childhood to early adulthood, thus, presenting a halfway approach to the spiritual life cycle. Recommendations were based on the need for the Tsangaya to model along aspects of the Pondok in a manner that will enable the incorporation of later life spiritual needs of the elderly. The purpose of this article is to carry out a comparative analysis of these two systems of traditional Islamic education , in relation to eldercare and spiritual wellbeing.  The relevance of this paper lies in the fact that population aging is currently receiving attention as global crises, and issues of elderly wellbeing in all aspects are being explored towards addressing the needs of the elderly.


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