Frail patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) face a higher risk of adverse outcomes, but there is no clear consensus on which frailty measures are most suitable for COPD patients. Herein we evaluated the ability of frailty measurements in predicting 1-year acute exacerbation, hospitalization, and mortality in older patients with COPD.
A total of 302 patients [median age: 86 years (IQR: 80–90), 22.2% female] were admitted to the Department of Geriatric Medicine were prospectively enrolled in this study. Frailty status was assessed using the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP), Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), Frailty Index of Accumulative Deficits (FI-CD), and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Cox proportional hazard regression and Poisson regression were used to evaluating the association of the adverse outcomes with frailty as assessed using the four instruments. The discrimination accuracy of these tools in predicting the 1-year all-cause mortality was also compared.
Prevalence of frailty ranged from 51% (using FFP) to 64.2% (using CFS). The four frail instruments were associated with 1-year mortality. After an average follow-up time of 2.18 years (IQR: 1.56–2.62 years), frailty as defined by four instruments (except for FI-CD), was associated with death [FFP: Hazard ratio (HR) = 3.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–7.44; CFS: HR = 3.68, 95% CI 1.03–13.16; SPPB: HR = 3.74, 95% CI 1.39–10.06). Frailty was also associated with acute exacerbation (using FFP) and hospitalization (using FFP, CFS, and FI-CD). Frail showed a moderate predictive ability [area under the curve ranging (AUC) 0.70–0.80] and a high negative predictive value (0.98–0.99) for 1-year mortality.
With the four different frailty assessment tools, frailty was associated with poor prognosis in older patients with stable COPD. The FFP, CFS, FI-CD, and SPPB instruments showed similar performance in predicting 1-year mortality.
Acute Heart Failure (AHF)-related hospitalizations and mortality are still high in western countries, especially among older patients. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and predictors of in-hospital mortality of older patients hospitalized with AHF. We conducted a retrospective study including all consecutive patients ≥65 years who were admitted for AHF at a single academic medical center between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2018. The primary outcome was all-cause, in-hospital mortality. We also analyzed deaths due to cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV causes and compared early in-hospital events. The study included 6930 patients, mean age 81 years, 51% females. The overall mortality rate was 13%. Patients ≥85 years had higher mortality and early death rate than younger patients. Infections were the most common condition precipitating AHF in our cohort, and pneumonia was the most frequent of these. About half of all hospital deaths were due to non-CV causes. After adjusting for confounding factors other than NYHA class at admission, infections were associated with an almost two-fold increased risk of mortality, HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.10–2.71 in patients 65–74 years (p = 0.014); HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.34–2.49 in patients 75–84 years (p = 0.001); HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.24–2.19 in patients ≥85 years (p = 0.001). In conclusion, among older patients with AHF, in-hospital mortality rates increased with increasing age, and infections were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. In contemporary patients with AHF, along with the treatment of the CV conditions, management should be focused on timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment of non-CV factors, especially pulmonary infections.
Due to the lack of clinical trials on the efficacy of chemotherapy in older patients, an optimal treatment strategy has not been developed. We investigated whether adjuvant chemotherapy could improve the survival of older patients with breast cancer in Japan.
We retrospectively analyzed data of patients with breast cancer aged ≥ 70 years who underwent breast cancer surgery in eight hospitals between 2008 and 2013. Clinical treatment and follow-up data were obtained from the patients’ medical electric records.
A total of 1095 patients were enrolled, of which 905 were included in the initial non-matched analysis. The median age and follow-up period were 75 (range 70–93) and 6.3 years, respectively. Of these patients, 127 (14%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (Chemo group) while the remaining 778 (86%) did not (Control group). The Chemo group was younger (mean age in years 73 vs 76; P < 0.0001), had a larger pathological tumor size (mean mm 25.9 vs 19.9; P < 0.0001), and more metastatic axillary lymph nodes (mean numbers 2.7 vs 0.7; P < 0.0001) than the Control group. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.783 and P = 0.558). After matched analyses, DFS was found to be significantly prolonged with adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.037); however, OS difference in the matched cohort was not statistically significant (P = 0.333).
The results showed that adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence, but survival benefits were limited.
Unlike medulloblastoma (MB) in children, robust prospective trials have not taken place for older patients due to the low incidence of MB in adults and adolescent and young adults (AYA). Current MB treatment paradigms for older patients have been extrapolated from the pediatric experience even though questions exist about the applicability of these approaches. Clinical and molecular classification of MB now provides better prognostication and is being incorporated in pediatric therapeutic trials. It has been established that genomic alterations leading to activation of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway occur in approximately 60% of MB in patients over the age of 16 years. Within this cohort, protein patched homolog (PTCH) and smoothened (SMO) mutations are commonly found. Among patients whose tumors harbor the SHH molecular signature, it is estimated that over 80% of patients could respond to SHH pathway inhibitors. Given the advances in the understanding of molecular subgroups and the lack of robust clinical data for adult/AYA MB, the Alliance for Clinical Trial in Oncology group developed the AMBUSH trial: Comprehensive Management of AYA and Adult Patients with Medulloblastoma or Pineal Embryonal Tumors with a Randomized Placebo Controlled Phase II Focusing on Sonic Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition in SHH Subgroup Patients (Adult & Adolescent MedulloBlastoma Using Sonic Hedgehog Trial). This trial will enroll patients 18 years of age or older with MB (any molecular subgroup and risk stratification) or pineal embryonal tumor. Patients will be assigned to one of three cohorts: (1) average risk non-SHH-MB, (2) average risk SHH-MB, and (3) high risk MB or pineal embryonal tumors. All patients will receive protocol-directed comprehensive treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Patients with SHH-MB in cohort 1 will be randomized to a smoothened inhibitor or placebo as maintenance therapy for one year.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, and over half of patients with newly diagnosed GBM are over the age of 65. Management of glioblastoma in older patients includes maximal safe resection followed by either radiation, chemotherapy, or combined modality treatment. Despite recent advances in the treatment of older patients with GBM, survival is still only approximately 9 months compared to approximately 15 months for the general adult population, suggesting that further research is required to optimize management in the older population. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) has been shown to have a prognostic and predictive role in the management of older patients with other cancers, and domains of the CGA have demonstrated an association with outcomes in GBM in retrospective studies. Furthermore, the CGA and other geriatric assessment tools are now starting to be prospectively investigated in older GBM populations. This review aims to outline current treatment strategies for older patients with GBM, explore the rationale for inclusion of geriatric assessment in GBM management, and highlight recent data investigating its implementation into practice.