vegetable intake
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. A. F. Khan ◽  
M. Sohaib ◽  
S. Iqbal ◽  
M. S. Haider ◽  
M. Chaudhry

Abstract The present study was carried out to determine incidence of overweight and obesity in Pakistani servicemen with reference to their area of duty, feeding habits and also to identify risk factors. Accordingly, 2,501 servicemen selected from all over Pakistan using multiple stage stratified sampling protocol. Nutrition assessment performed using body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and dietary assessment using food frequency questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed using the SPSS version 25. Regression was used to find risk factors of obesity and WHR. Results indicated that about 1/4th of servicemen were smokers. Approximately, 1/5th of them were overweight and about one quarter were eating fruits and vegetables for <3 days/ week and <4 days/week, respectively. Only 1/3rd of them were physically active for at least <40 minutes per day. Age and fruits intake were significantly predicting BMI with a direct relation and vegetable intake was negatively correlated to BMI of the servicemen. Age and rank were significant predictors of WHR while, physical activity was negatively correlated to WHR. It is concluded and suggested from our study that there is a need to modify eating patterns and habits as well as improving physical activity on daily basis for healthy and long life of the servicemen.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Syed Muhammad Ishaque ◽  
Muhammad Sadiq Achackzai ◽  
Zia Ud Din ◽  
Shahid Pervez

Objectives: To determine frequency of esophageal malignancy in Balochistan and to evaluate its correlation with predisposing and dietary factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from Jan 2019 to Dec 2020, at two tertiary care hospital of Quetta which caters to the entire population of province. The total number of 207 cases of esophageal biopsies were received and morphological diagnosis done by H&E staining. Results: Out of 207 (N) esophageal biopsies cases, malignancy were observed in 65%, chronic esophagitis in 19%, benign esophageal lesion in 1% and other esophageal lesions were observed in less than 4% of samples. Association with aggravating factors included tea 80.5%, use of drugs 64%, spicy food 57%, salted food 53%, quid & tobacco taken orally and through nose 44% and cigarette smoking 21.5%. The protective factors include fresh fruit 90%, fish 64% and milk 55% which were never or occasionally taken, meat chicken and beef intake was 63% & 53% and vegetable intake was 52%, but 72.5% of cases never used alcohol and mutton meat was not used by 50%. Conclusion: Esophageal cancer was associated in those groups of people which may regard as having high risk factors. These include increased intake of spicy/salted food, hot beverages, drugs, quid and smoked tobacco, coupled with low intake of fruits and vegetables, lack of awareness and low socioeconomic status. doi: How to cite this:Ishaque SM, Achakzai MS, Ziauddin, Pervez S. Correlation of predisposing factors and Esophageal Malignancy in high risk population of Baluchistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Richard Szewei Wang ◽  
Bing-Long Wang ◽  
Yu-Ni Huang ◽  
Thomas T.H. Wan

Abstract Factors which are associated with cognitive decline among elders include physical activity and the intake of fruit and vegetable, however, long-term effects and the concurrence of physical activity and fruit-vegetable intake are unknown. The present study explores this potential synergy for the mitigation of cognitive decline among a cohort of older Taiwanese in a 16-year longitudinal study. Five population-based surveys from the Taiwan Longitudinal Survey on Aging (1995–2015) involving 4,440 respondents over 53 years old in 1999 were studied. Trends in decrease of cognitive decline were observed for 16 years. Cognitive function was assessed using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Adjustments made on regression analysis included demographic, socioeconomic, health behavioral, and disease status covariates. The risk of cognitive decline decreased 63% when high physical activity group and high intake of fruit-vegetable group were combined (OR :0.37, 95% CI: 0.23–0.59). More physical activity was combined with greater fruit-vegetable intake, cognitive decline among older Taiwanese was mitigated. This indicates that there may be a synergistic effect of physical activity and fruit-vegetable intake on mitigating cognitive decline. Synergistic personal behavior is a safe, effective, and economical approach to health in later life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-9
Seung Hee Lee ◽  
Latetia V. Moore ◽  
Sohyun Park ◽  
Diane M. Harris ◽  
Heidi M. Blanck

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 211
Efrem d’Ávila Ferreira ◽  
Mariko Hatta ◽  
Yasunaga Takeda ◽  
Chika Horikawa ◽  
Mizuki Takeuchi ◽  

We aimed to analyze the association between dietary iron intake and obesity assessed by BMI after adjustment for nutrient intake (macronutrients and fiber) and food groups. The study design was cross-sectional. Patients with type-2 diabetes (n = 1567; 63.1% males; mean age 62.3 ± 11.6 years) were included in the study. To assess diet, consumption of typical food groups was determined by a food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. We performed a binary regression analysis between quartiles of iron intake and obesity by quartiles of age group. A direct linear association was found for the highest quartile of iron intake and obesity in the younger age group of 30 to 54 years (OR = 3.641, 95% CI = 1.020–12.990; p trend = 0.011). Multivariate analysis using food groups as opposed to nutrients revealed a positive trend for obesity in the younger age group after adjusting for lifestyle factors, energy intake and bean and vegetable intake (p trend = 0.023). In all participants, an inverse association was observed before adjustment by vegetable intake (OR = 0.453, 95% CI = 0.300–0.684; p trend = 0.001). Higher iron intake was associated with obesity independent of macronutrient and fiber intake but only in the youngest quartile of age group examined.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ming Guan

Abstract Background Despite the existing literature highlights the central roles of sociodemographic factors, fruit & vegetable (F&V) intake, and physical activities for maintaining good health, less is known about the associations in the Chinese context. This study attempted to explore the associations of servings of F&V intake and levels of physical activities with poor self-rated health (SRH) among Chinese older adults. Methods Data were drawn from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health-China (SAGE-China) issued by the World Health Organization and included 7560 respondents aged ≥60 years in China. After screening out the potential confounding factors, multiple logistic regression models were adopted to explore the associations of sociodemographic factors, servings of F&V intake, and levels of physical activities with poor SRH. Results Among the sample, nearly a quarter reported poor health status. There were significant gender differences in the case of servings of F&V intake and levels of physical activities. Logistic regressions indicated that higher fruit intake was associated with lower likelihood of vigorous level of physical activity as compared to zero intake. Likewise, higher vegetable intake (≥10 servings) was associated with a higher likelihood of vigorous & moderate level of physical activity when compared to lower intake (≤ 4 servings). Higher fruit intake was associated with a lower likelihood of poor SRH. Similarly, vegetable intake (5 servings: AOR = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.58–0.83; 6–9 servings: AOR = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.59–0.87) was significantly associated with poor SRH. Additionally, vigorous level of physical activity (AOR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.65–0.97) and vigorous fitness/leisure (AOR = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.39–0.84) were significantly associated with poor SRH. Conclusion This study suggested that older adults with high fruit intake had lower probability of performing vigorous & moderate level of physical activity, while those with high vegetable intake had higher probability of performing vigorous & moderate level of physical activity. Likewise, the older adults with high F&V intake and higher probability of performing vigorous level of physical activity, walk/bike activity, and vigorous/moderate fitness/leisure had less likelihood to face the risk for poor SRH outcomes. The appropriate servings of F&V intake and levels of physical activity should be highlighted.

Kira Simmons ◽  
Nina Meloncelli ◽  
Lauren Kearney ◽  
Judith Maher

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Astrid A. M. Poelman ◽  
Jessica E. Heffernan ◽  
Maeva Cochet-Broch ◽  
Janne Beelen

Children’s vegetable intake is too low, and a key barrier to the inadequate intake is low acceptance. To facilitate successful development of new vegetable-based products for children, a sensory science approach to product development has been taken. A new theoretical model is proposed, the CAMPOV model: Children’s Acceptance Model for Product development of Vegetables. The model is informed by scientific literature and considers biological, psychological, and situational, and intrinsic and extrinsic product factors relevant to children’s acceptance of vegetables, with a focus on modifiable factors at the product level. Simultaneously, 14 new vegetable-based product concepts for children were developed and evaluated through focus groups with 5–8-year-olds (n = 36) as a proof-of-concept evaluation of the model. Children had high interest in six of the concepts. Factors identified from the literature that positively associated with the children’s interest in the concepts included bright colours, bite-sized pieces, good taste, fun eating experience, and familiarity. The CAMPOV model and proof-of-concept evaluation results can guide further sensory and consumer research to increase children’s acceptance of food products containing vegetables, which will in turn provide further insights into the validity of the model. The food industry can use the model as a framework for development of new products for children with high sensory appeal.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Antti Kähäri

PurposePrevious research has shown that in contemporary societies, women have a healthier dietary intake than men. However, no research has examined how this gender gap develops over the long term. The present study examined how gender differences in fresh vegetable intake frequency have evolved from 1979 to 2017 in Finland and whether differences are affected by age or educational level.Design/methodology/approachThe data were derived from annually repeated, nationally representative “Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population” and “Regional Health and Well-being (RHW)” surveys on the health habits of the Finnish population. The dataset is a time series of repeated cross-sectional surveys. In total, the data sample comprised 161,996 Finns aged 20–64 years. Descriptive methods and logistic regression were used for the analysis.FindingsDuring 1979–2017, the prevalence of daily vegetable intake increased from 12 to 35% among men and from 18 to 56% among women. Thus, the magnitude of the gap between genders doubled across the study period. The increased vegetable intake was partly explained by the changing education and age structures of society. Potential explanations and avenues for future research are also discussed. Policy implications depend on whether the findings are interpreted as a case of health differences or health inequality.Originality/valueThis study used a long time series to analyse how gender differences in vegetable intake have evolved in a Nordic welfare state context. It showed that the gap in fresh vegetable intake between men and women has widened.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Shira Zelber-Sagi ◽  
Mazen Noureddin ◽  
Oren Shibolet

The increasing burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) emphasizes the unmet need for primary prevention. Lifestyle measures appear to be important modifiable risk factors for HCC regardless of its etiology. Lifestyle patterns, as a whole and each component separately, are related to HCC risk. Dietary composition is important beyond obesity. Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as fish and poultry, are inversely associated with HCC, while red meat, saturated fat, and cholesterol are related to increased risk. Sugar consumption is associated with HCC risk, while fiber and vegetable intake is protective. Data from multiple studies clearly show a beneficial effect for physical activity in reducing the risk of HCC. However, the duration, mode and intensity of physical activity needed are yet to be determined. There is evidence that smoking can lead to liver fibrosis and liver cancer and has a synergistic effect with alcohol drinking. On the other hand, an excessive amount of alcohol by itself has been associated with increased risk of HCC directly (carcinogenic effect) or indirectly (liver fibrosis and cirrhosis progression. Large-scale intervention studies testing the effect of comprehensive lifestyle interventions on HCC prevention among diverse cohorts of liver disease patients are greatly warranted.

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