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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-36
Author(s):  
Dipesh Kumar Gupta ◽  
Arun Gnyawali ◽  
Deepak Jaiswal

Introduction: Mini Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (mPCNL) is a safe and efficient method for management of nephrolithiasis. Post procedure nephrostomy tube drainage is considered as the standard practice. In recent years, tubeless mPCNL with the use of double J (DJ) stent alone has replaced the placement of the nephrostomy tube. Aims: This study intends to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tubeless Mini Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy. Methods: A total of 80 patients with Nephrolithiasis, admitted to Urology Unit of Nepalgunj Medical College, between September 2018 and September 2019 were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups: Tubeless group where tube was omitted and Standard Group where it was placed. The two groups were compared with respect to hemoglobin drop and blood transfusion requirement, hospital stay and analgesic requirement in the post-operative period. Results: Mean age of the patients was 34.30 ± 13.19 years. Mean stone size was 19.03 mm. The mean change in hemoglobin after standard mPCNL was 1.68 gm/dl and that in the tubeless group was 1.11 (p=0.018). The tubeless group had a significantly (p=0.001) shorter hospital stay (3.05 ± 1.23 days) compared to standard group (3.85 ± 0.86). The postoperative pain as assessed by visual analogue scale, was more in the standard group necessitating additional analgesia. It was significantly higher in the standard group at 12, 24, 48 hours, as compared to the tubeless group. Conclusion:  Placement of nephrostomy tube can be omitted as a routine practice as Tubeless mini PCNL has an added advantage of significantly reduced postoperative pain, less analgesic requirement, shorter hospital stay, less postoperative blood loss.


Author(s):  
Pooja Gandhi ◽  
Pinkal Taral ◽  
Krunal Patel ◽  
Sanketsinh Rathod ◽  
Bhavini Rathwa

Introduction: Infection with any of the 4 dengue virus serotypes results in a diverse range of symptoms, from mild undifferentiated fever to life-threatening hemorrhagic fever and shock. Given that dengue virus infection elicits such a broad range of clinical symptoms, early and accurate laboratory diagnosis is essential for appropriate patient management. So a study was carried out to know its clinical profile, correlation between the laboratory profile and the severity of dengue fever and outcome in dengue patients. Aim: To study the clinical profile, correlation between the laboratory profile and the severity of dengue fever and outcome in dengue patients at tertiary care center. Method: Retrospective Observational study from 1st May 2019 to 31st April 2021. Result: Total 323 patients were studied during 1st May 2019 to 31st April 2021. Most common presentation was fever (100%), most common clinical finding is hepatomegaly (14.2%). All severe dengue infection has platelet count < 50000/cumm. In study of 323 patients 194(60%) of dengue fever,85(26.4%) of DHF GRADE 1,9(2.8%) of DHF GRADE 2 were discharged .13(4%) patients of DSS were expired.22 patients (6.8%) went DAMA. Conclusion: Reliable diagnosis of dengue fever in endemic areas can be done by clinical parameters like presence of nausea, vomiting, pain abdomen and hepatomegaly. Monitoring platelet count, hematocrit and WBC count is very useful for management of dengue cases. Keywords: dengue fever, platelet count, outcome


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 638-641
Author(s):  
I D Chaurasia ◽  
Yogita Chaurasia

To analyse the demographics and presenting features of patients presenting with optic neuritis and papillitis. Clinical profiles of 40 patients presenting with optic neuritis and papillitis at a tertiary care center were collected retrospectively and prospectively. Detailed medical and ophthalmic history was taken especially about mode, duration and course of the disease, drug intake, alcoholism, smoking, pregnancy, lactation, convulsions, pyrexia, history suggestive of TB, syphilis, neurological deficit. A comprehensive ophthalmological and neurological evaluation was done for each patient along with radiological work up. Patients were prospectively followed up for an average of three months. Females in the reproductive age group constituted largest number of the patients (61.8%) in the present series. Maximum patients (70%) were between 20-50 years of age. Vision was found to be affected in all the patients at presentation and most of them presented with vision CF or HM (35.4% and 29.25% respectively) while 4 patients had complete loss of vision. Two third (66.7%) of patients reported eye pain at presentation. Abnormal pupillary reaction was found in most patients with the most common being RAPD on swinging flash light which was seen in 85.4%. Equal percentage (39.5%) of patients presented with Blurred Hyperemic (BH) disc and ophthalmoscopically normal appearing disc. Onset and progression of disease was found to be rapid in most cases ranging from few hours to days. Visual recovery post treatment was found to be good with most eyes achieving vision 6/24 or better. Optic neuritis has varied clinical presentations. Most of our patients were young to middle aged females. The most common presenting features were decrease in vision ranging from slight to profound, eye pain and abnormal pupillary reaction. Morphological abnormalities in appearance of optic disc were also found in two third of cases.Rapid progression was noted in almost all cases. Most of the cases achieved a good outcome at the end of follow up period.


2022 ◽  
pp. 263183182110686
Author(s):  
Swapnajeet Sahoo ◽  
Sandeep Grover

Aim: To assess the profile of patients availing the marital and psychosexual clinic (MPC) services through the telemode at a tertiary care center after the imposition of lockdown and compare the same with the profile of the patients attending the outpatient services, in-person MPC services during the prelockdown period. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study in which comparisons were made between patients availing the MPC services from March 24, 2020 to March 23, 2021 with the profile of patients during the period of March 24, 2019 to March 23, 2020 (ie, COVID period—lockdown). Results: A total of 112 patients availed the MPC services during the COVID study period compared to 307 patients in the pre-COVID period. However, when the proportion of MPC cases among the total walk-ins was compared, during the COVID period the proportion of MPC cases increased by almost 1.75 times. During the COVID time period, there was an increase in the patients who were significantly younger ( P = .002), females ( P = .003), more from urban locality ( P = .035), and being referred by self or caregiver ( P = .001). In terms of specific diagnosis, as compared to the pre-COVID timeframe, significantly higher numbers of patients were diagnosed with premature ejaculation (PME) and PME + erectile dysfunction while the services were being provided through the telemode. Conclusion: The present study suggests an increase in the proportion of patients seeking help for marital and sexual issues while the services are being provided by telemode.


2022 ◽  
pp. 263183182110685
Author(s):  
Somashekhar Bijjal ◽  
Jannatbi Iti ◽  
Fakirappa B. Ganiger ◽  
Jitendra Mugali ◽  
Raju G. Mahadevappa

Background: According to World Health Organization, proportion of women experiencing either physical or sexual violence ranges between 15% and 17%. In India, one-third of women population in 15 to 49 age group experiences sexual assault at least once in their life, predisposing them to develop psychiatric disorders. Aims and Objectives: To assess prevalence of psychiatry disorders among victims of assault attending tertiary care center. Methodology: It is a retrospective, record-based study which was conducted among 216 victims of assault attending one-stop center. Study was started after obtaining Institutional Ethical Committee clearance and permissions from concerned authorities and confidentiality was maintained throughout the study. Data was analyzed by frequency, proportion, and chi-square tests using SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 216 victims, 50% were physically assaulted and 50% were sexually assaulted. Among 108 sexual assault cases, 81.5% victims were raped, 2.7% were sexually harassed, 1.9% was sexually abused, and 13.9% children were sexually abused. A total of 30.1% had adjustment disorder, 11.6% had dysthymia, 8.3% had mild depression, 5.6% had moderate depression, 0.5% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 0.5% had psychosis, and 43.5% did not have any psychiatry disorder. Conclusion: Majority of the sexually assaulted victims belonged to age group 16 to 20 years and had adjustment disorder, whereas physically assaulted victims belonged to age group above 36 years and had dysthymia and depression. Special services like medical care, counseling, legal aid, and so on should be provided to victims free of charge. Awareness and sensitization programs should be done through active community participation for the welfare of children and women.


Author(s):  
Mukesh Kumar ◽  
Mukta Meel ◽  
Nikita Choudhary ◽  
Ashok Singh ◽  
Kusum Mathur

Abstract Background Nonneoplastic cysts of brain are a diverse group of benign lesions with variable etiopathogenesis. Due to different site and histogenesis, these lesions have wide clinicopathologic spectrum. Objective The study was performed to evaluate epidemiology and clinicopathologic spectrum of nonneoplastic central nervous system (CNS) cysts highlighting the role of histopathology in the diagnosis as well as to compare the data with other institution’s data available in literature. Materials and Methods All nonneoplastic CNS cysts reported from January 2013 to June 2020 in the Department of Pathology of Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, were retrieved and reviewed. The data were evaluated for age, site, cyst wall lining, nature of cyst contents, and location (intracranial and spinal), using SPSS software version 20.0. Results A total of 255 cases were reviewed with an incidence of 4.96% and an age range of 2 to 74 years with slight male preponderance. Among them there were 157, 34, 26, 24, and 2 cases of epidermoid, arachnoid, dermoid, colloid, and glioependymal cysts, respectively, and 1 case of perineural cyst. Infective cysts were much less common than noninfective cysts, accounting for two cases of neurocysticercosis and hydatid cysts each. All cyst types mainly presented with signs and symptoms of a mass lesion. Conclusion Nonneoplastic cyst mainly presented like a CNS mass lesion with overlapping clinical features, and image finding revealing the key role of histopathological analysis. Epidermoids were the most common type of these cysts in the present series followed by the arachnoid cysts.


Author(s):  
Sangh Mittra ◽  
Hanuman Prasad Prajapati ◽  
Raj Kumar

Abstract Background The identification of neurosurgical causes of craniomegaly and early institution of therapy requires for better clinical and functional outcomes. Aims and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurosurgical causes, managements, and outcomes of craniomegaly in neonate and infants. Materials and Methods The cases with a history of head enlargement from neonatal period were included in this study. Their causes, managements, and outcomes were recorded retrospectively during the period of January 2010 to February 2013, in neurosurgery department at SGPGIMS Lucknow, and June 2018 to June 2020, at UPUMS, Saifai, Etawah, UP, India. Results Out of 41 cases, there were 30 (73.14%) cases of hydrocephalus, 4 (9.76%) Dandy-Walker malformation, 2 (4.88%) subdural collection, 2 (4.88%) arachnoid cyst, 1 (2.44%) craniosynostosis, and 2 (4.88%) with tubercular meningitis. The age range of our cases was 18 to 178 days and the mean age was 102.54 ± 50.73. Preoperative head circumference range was 39 to 62 cm (mean: 55.27 ± 6.58cm). Majority of the cases (n = 32, 78.05%) were managed with ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgeries. Out of 41 cases, 33(80.49%) had improved outcomes, 7 (17.07%) stabilized, and mortality occurred in 1 (2.44%) case. Postoperatively, there was improvement in the head circumference (range: 39–60 cm and mean: 46.15 ± 5.83 cm) on 6 to 24 months (mean: 17.85 ± 5.18 months) of follow-up. Conclusion Hydrocephalus was the commonest neurosurgical cause of head enlargement in neonate and infants. Shunt surgery was the most common form of management of these cases. Early detection, institution of therapy, and periodic follow-up program for diagnosing and treating complications were the key to successful outcomes in these patients.


Author(s):  
Ramesh Chandra Venkata Vemula ◽  
BCM Prasad ◽  
Kunal Kumar

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to do a retrospective analysis of the various neurosurgical pathologies where endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) was used and to evaluate the outcome and prognosis. Methods The retrospective data collection was done for the patients who underwent ETV with or without other adjunct procedures; the results were prepared for clinical presentation, diagnosis, surgical approach, and surgical goal; and success rate and prognosis were analyzed and compared with other studies. Results A total of 50 patients were included in the study, with overall success rate of ETV as 88%; aqueductal stenosis was the most common indication where ETV was used; headache and vomiting were the most common presenting complaints followed by ataxia and visual blurring; and ETV provided flexibility in its use with biopsy, abscess drainage, temporary external ventricular drain placement, etc. Conclusion ETV being superior to ventriculo-peritoneal shunt for obstructive hydrocephalus provides flexibility in its use and possibly is a useful adjunct to prevent postoperative hydrocephalus after endoscopic intraventricular surgery; proper case selection in accordance to ETV success score yields a better success rate. In experienced hands with proper precautions, perioperative complications can be kept at minimum. Wherever possible, in cases of obstructive hydrocephalus, especially in patients >1 year of age, ETV should be the treatment of choice. We recommend a proper case selection, including preoperative detailed reading of sagittal magnetic resonance imaging scan, to improve the success rate with less complication.


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