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Vivek Kumar P ◽  
Soundrapandian E ◽  
Jenin Joseph A ◽  
Kanagarajan E ◽  

Additive manufacturing process is a method of layer by layer joining of materials to create components from three-dimensional (3D) model data. After their introduction in the automotive sector a decade ago, it has seen a significant rise in research and growth. The Additive manufacturing is classified into different types based upon the energy source use in the fabrication process. In our project, we used self-build CNC machine that runs MACH3 software, as well as the MACH3 controller is used to control the welding torch motion for material addition through three axis movement (X, Y and Z). In the project we used ER70 S-6 weld wire for the fabrication and examined its microstructure and mechanical properties. Different layers of the specimen had different microstructures, according to microstructural studies of the product. Rockwell hardness tester used for testing hardness of the product. According to the observation of the part fabricated components using the Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing process outperformed the mechanical properties of mild steel casting process. The product fabricated by Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing process properties is superior to conventional casting process.

Small ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 2104215
Wenjing Xu ◽  
Xiaoling Ma ◽  
Jae Hoon Son ◽  
Sang Young Jeong ◽  
Lianbin Niu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Teng Liu ◽  
Cheng Xu ◽  
Hongzhe Liu ◽  
Xuewei Li ◽  
Pengfei Wang

Security perception systems based on 5G-V2X have become an indispensable part of smart city construction. However, the detection speed of traditional deep learning models is slow, and the low-latency characteristics of 5G networks cannot be fully utilized. In order to improve the safety perception ability based on 5G-V2X, increase the detection speed in vehicle perception. A vehicle perception model is proposed. First, an adaptive feature extraction method is adopted to enhance the expression of small-scale features and improve the feature extraction ability of small-scale targets. Then, by improving the feature fusion method, the shallow information is fused layer by layer to solve the problem of feature loss. Finally, the attention enhancement method is introduced to increase the center point prediction ability and solve the problem of target occlusion. The experimental results show that the UA-DETRAC data set has a good detection effect. Compared with the vehicle detection capability before the improvement, the detection accuracy and speed have been greatly improved, which effectively improves the security perception capability based on the 5G-V2X system, thereby promoting the construction of smart cities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 12762
Marta Szczęch ◽  
Alicja Hinz ◽  
Natalia Łopuszyńska ◽  
Monika Bzowska ◽  
Władysław P. Węglarz ◽  

Cancer is one of the most important health problems of our population, and one of the common anticancer treatments is chemotherapy. The disadvantages of chemotherapy are related to the drug’s toxic effects, which act on cancer cells and the healthy part of the body. The solution of the problem is drug encapsulation and drug targeting. The present study aimed to develop a novel method of preparing multifunctional 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) nanocarriers and their in vitro characterization. 5-FU polyaminoacid-based [email protected] nanocarriers were formed by encapsulation drug-loaded nanocores with polyaminoacids multilayer shell via layer-by-layer method. The size of prepared nanocarriers ranged between 80–200 nm. Biocompatibility of our nanocarriers as well as activity of the encapsulated drug were confirmed by MTT tests. Moreover, the ability to the real-time observation of developed nanocarriers and drug accumulation inside the target was confirmed by fluorine magnetic resonance imaging (19F-MRI).

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Tong Xu ◽  
Di Qian ◽  
Yelei Hu ◽  
Yuanzhao Zhu ◽  
Yi Zhong ◽  

In this study, a kind of inorganic composite flame retardant ([email protected]) was prepared by combining solution deposition and calcination methods using sepiolite microfiber material as carrier. This inorganic compound flame retardant was combined with waterborne polyurethane (WPU) through layer-by-layer method to prepare WPU composites. The SEM and EDS, TEM, and XRD were used to characterize the microscopic morphology and crystal structure of WPU composites. Thermogravimetric analysis tests confirmed the good thermal stability of WPU/[email protected] composites; at the temperature of 600°C, the carbon residual percentage of WPU/Sep, WPU/Fe2O3, and WPU/[email protected] composites is 7.3%, 12.2%, and 13.4%, respectively, higher than that of WPU (1.4%). Vertical combustion tests proved better flame-retardant property of WPU/[email protected] composite-coated cotton than noncoated cotton. The microcalorimeter test proved that the PHRR of WPU/[email protected] composites decreased by 61% compared with that of WPU. In addition, after combining with [email protected], the breaking strength of WPU increased by 35%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 105 (12S1) ◽  
pp. S66-S66
Kateryna Polishevska ◽  
Sandra Kelly ◽  
Purushothaman Kuppan ◽  
Karen Seeberger ◽  
Saloni Aggarwal ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 64 (10) ◽  
pp. 721-727
D. B. Efremov ◽  
A. A. Gerasimova

The article presents results of the study of possibilities of selective laser melting (SLM), or so-called additive technologies, for production of permanent magnets. This process makes it possible to produce not only product models and prototypes, but also finished functional products using layer-by-layer addition of material and binding of particles and layers to each other. An alloy based on Fe - Cr - Co system has been chosen as the material for evaluation of the compared technologies for permanent magnets production. The application fields of selective laser melting (SLM/SLP) were considered. The powders obtained by different methods are taken for the research. Classical technology of magnetic alloy casting also was analyzed. The studies of magnetic materials and comparisons of the properties of powder magnets with standard data were carried out. On the basis of 25Kh15KA alloy powder sprayed by gas atomization, permanent magnets with a material density of 7.59 - 7.55 g/cm3 can be manufactured at the SLP plant. They meet the requirements recommended by the state standard GOST 24897 - 81, and achieve characteristics of magnets made by classical metallurgical technologies. To study the magnetic and physical properties, four samples were produced with the same geometry in the shape of a cube. During production of each of the test samples, different operating modes of the plant were selected. Samples were made on the basis of the “Kurchatov Institute” NRS enterprise (the “Prometheus” Central Research Institute of Construction Materials) as part of the NIO-35 technological complex. It was established that characteristics of the powders obtained by gas atomization qualitatively exceed characteristics of the powders obtained by other methods, and the produced magnets meet all the requirements for magnets.

2021 ◽  
Isabella Molloy

<p>Through the exploitation of new additive manufacturing (AM) processes, this research seeks to reinvent the designer as an informed mediator between the digitally defined and the physically expressed.  Current 3D printing techniques generally construct an object layer by layer, building vertically in the z-axis. Recently developed, ‘freeform 3D printing’ is an AM method which builds through the deposition of material that solidifies upon extrusion. The result is free-standing material forms with diminished need for support material.  Building in this spatial manner means that AM is no longer reliant on layer based techniques that are built from ground-up. Instead, motions can move simultaneously in the x, y and z axes. This increased freedom of motion allows the designer to disregard the requisite that solid forms need to be delineated prior to considering material deposition. Considering this in relationship to the design of artefacts, specific approaches that consider both form and material deposition concurrently allow the authorship of the method of making to be reclaimed.  Bespoke computational processes work to encode material deposition with qualities that are tactile, visual and expressive of its making method. Considerations to structural, performative and aesthetic implications are assimilated from the onset rather than post-rationalised. Material deposition is crafted to become three-dimensionally informed and considerate of the integral nature of its making method and its output, exposing new design opportunities.  Among other things, the research-through-design process suggests how parametric modelling could be used for mass-customisation and suggests a possible path for AM beyond prototyping, towards the manufacturing of bespoke products through an industrial design perspective.  Through iterative abstract and application based experiments, Designed Deposition pursues an increasingly integrated process between the user, the designer, the digital and the physical, towards the creation of digitally crafted artefacts.</p>

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