Antimicrobial Properties
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Author(s):  
Chun-Lan Chi ◽  
Lu Xu ◽  
Jun-Jie Li ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Bao-Quan Chen

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 7031
Author(s):  
Alina Robu ◽  
Aurora Antoniac ◽  
Elena Grosu ◽  
Eugeniu Vasile ◽  
Anca Daniela Raiciu ◽  
...  

PMMA bone cements are mainly used to fix implanted prostheses and are introduced as a fluid mixture, which hardens over time. The problem of infected prosthesis could be solved due to the development of some new antibacterial bone cements. In this paper, we show the results obtained to develop four different modified PMMA bone cements by using antimicrobial additives, such as gentamicin, peppermint oil incorporated in hydroxyapatite, and silver nanoparticles incorporated in a ceramic glass matrix (2 and 4%). The structure and morphology of the modified bone cements were investigated by SEM and EDS. We perform experimental measurements on wettability, hydration degree, and degradation degree after immersion in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay using the human MG-63 cell line. Antimicrobial properties were checked against standard strains Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. The addition of antimicrobial agents did not significantly affect the hydration and degradation degree. In terms of biocompatibility assessed by the MTT test, all experimental PMMA bone cements are biocompatible. The performance of bone cements with peppermint essential oil and silver nanoparticles against these two pathogens suggests that these antibacterial additives look promising to be used in clinical practice against bacterial infection.


Author(s):  
Taye Temitope Alawode ◽  
Labunmi Lajide ◽  
Mary Olaleye ◽  
Bodunde Owolabi

Abstract Background The development of resistance to many antibiotics currently in use has necessitated the search for more effective alternatives. Plants have been used in ethnomedicine in different parts of the world to treat various diseases. Many studies on plants have confirmed their medicinal potentials and have led to the isolation and characterization of several potential drug candidates. This study investigates the leaves of Icacina trichantha for antimicrobial properties and seeks to identify the compounds responsible for the observed activities. The leaves of Icacina trichantha are used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of skin infections. In this study, a solvent-based fractionation of bioactive compounds in the leaves of Icacina trichantha was carried out using hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The resultant extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria and four fungi using standard procedures. GC–MS analysis of the most active fraction was carried out. Results The non-polar fraction (hexane) showed better antimicrobial activity than the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. At 200 mg/mL, the fraction showed inhibition of 28.0 ± 0.82, 23.7 ± 0.47, and 24.6 ± 0.94 against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis,, respectively. At the same concentration, the extract showed zones of inhibition of 18.0 ± 0.82 against Candida albicans and Penicillium notatum. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) values of 2.5 mg/mL were obtained against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. GC–MS analysis of the hexane extract revealed 62 peaks, out of which ten peaks were successfully characterized. Conclusions None of the extracts screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities in this study is as potent as the standard drugs, Gentamicin and Tioconazole. The hexane extract, however, showed some activity against the microorganisms and was analyzed using GC–MS. The hexane extract contained many bioactive compounds, some of which could not be identified. Two of the identified compounds, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol, are known to possess antimicrobial properties. However, the unidentified compounds could also have contributed significantly to the antimicrobial activities of the extract.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Asmita Devkota ◽  
Anju Pandey ◽  
Zeinab Yadegari ◽  
Korsi Dumenyo ◽  
Ali Taheri

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major concern in battling infectious bacterial diseases. The overuse of antibiotics contributes to the emergence of resistance by eradicating the drug-sensitive strains, leaving behind the resistant strains that multiply without any competition. Nanoparticles are becoming popular as novel antimicrobial agents that follow a different mode of action from standard antibiotics and are therefore desirable against MDR bacteria. In this study, we synthesized carbon dots from different precursors including glucosamine HCL (GlcNH2·HCl) and 4,7,10-trioxa-1,13-tridecanediamine (TTDDA, and studied their antimicrobial effects in a diverse list of Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We demonstrated the antimicrobial properties of these carbon dots against these bacteria and provided the optimum concentration and incubation times for each bacterial species. Our findings indicated that not all carbon dots carry antimicrobial properties, and there is also a variation between different bacterial species in their resistance against these carbon dots.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 605-618
Author(s):  
Boufeldja Wahiba ◽  
Hadef Khawla Zahra

Edible fungal species like desert truffles are often considered a healthy food source, contributing to high antioxidant and antimicrobial effects which have been used as functional foods for health promotion and disease prevention, and as treatments for a variety of diseases since antiquity. The use of desert truffles in traditional medicine has led to modern scientific investigation into their bioactive properties. This study is part of this perspective and consists of doing in a first time the determination of the nutritional value of Terfezia boudieri harvested from North-western of Algeria, Secondly, we have evalu-ated the antioxidant capacity using two complementary test systems, name-ly DPPH free radical scavenging and iron reduction (FRAP) , and finely the antimicrobial properties were screened against seventeen Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacterial strains; and two strains of yeast using agar well diffusion method. The quantitative estimate of nutritional value shows that T. boudieri showed a preponderance of proteins and minerals with12.57 ± 0.13 and 15 ± 3g / 100g dry weight respectively; In addition, the methanolic extract of the ascocarps contains a high content of total phenols estimated at 44.68 ± 0.22 mg GAE / g, vitamin c and carotenoids are also present in large quantities. The methanolic extract has good capacity re-duction with iron. The free radical scavenging capacity DPPH is very inte-resting with an IC50 = 0.30 mg / ml; this last remains greater than the radical trapping capacity DPPH of ascorbic acid, whose IC50 = 0.08 mg / ml. Results of antimicrobial activity in particular against Gram (+) bacteria, the diameter of which varies from 10 ± 0.01 to 30 ± 0.57 mm where Bacillus subtilis ap-pears to be the most sensitive. On the other hand, they have moderate activ-ity against Gram (-) bacteria where Enterobacter cleacae, and Actinobacter baumannii, are the only Gram (-) bacteria that show hyper-sensitivity, our methanolic extract did not show anticandidal activity against Candida albi-cans. Therefore, the current results have demonstrated that this mushroom is nutritious and contain multiple antioxidants and has confirmed that desert truffle extracts have antimicrobial properties that are effective against com-mon pathogens that cause disease in humans, which can be further exploit-ed for clinical use.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 3928
Author(s):  
Vikneswari Sanmuham ◽  
Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan ◽  
A. M. Radzi ◽  
Ahmad Adlie Shamsuri ◽  
Ain Umaira Md Shah ◽  
...  

This study aims to investigate the effect of AgNPs on the mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial activity of kenaf/HDPE composites. AgNP material was prepared at different contents, from 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 to 10 wt%, by an internal mixer and hot compression at a temperature of 150 °C. Mechanical (tensile, modulus and elongation at break), thermal (TGA and DSC) and antimicrobial tests were performed to analyze behavior and inhibitory effects. The obtained results indicate that the effect of AgNP content displays improved tensile and modulus properties, as well as thermal and antimicrobial properties. The highest tensile stress is 5.07 MPa and was obtained at 10wt, TGA showed 10 wt% and had improved thermal stability and DSC showed improved stability with increased AgNP content. The findings of this study show the potential of incorporating AgNP concentrations as a secondary substitute to improve the performance in terms of mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties without treatment. The addition of AgNP content in polymer composite can be used as a secondary filler to improve the properties.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (22) ◽  
pp. 10589
Author(s):  
Fabiana Soares ◽  
João Trovão ◽  
Francisco Gil ◽  
Lídia Catarino ◽  
Igor Tiago ◽  
...  

Stone biodeterioration by cyanobacteria is a common issue in the field of cultural heritage. As they are considered the first stone colonizers, the need to control their growth has increased. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of kappa/iota carrageenans from the red seaweed Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus against the limestone proliferation of the cyanobacterium Parakomarekiella sesnandensis, under laboratory conditions. For this purpose, 200 μL of kappa/iota carrageenans (0.01 g mL−1) were applied into the surface of the limestone replicas prior to their inoculation with P. sesnandensis. Results were evaluated after 4 months of incubation through visual inspection, stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and colorimetric analyses. The gathered data demonstrated that these types of carrageenans have the potential to reduce the colonization of P. sesnandensis. With one sole application, the aesthetical alterations caused by the proliferation of P. sesnandensis were drastically reduced. This study highlights the need to explore marine-based products, particularly those derived from seaweeds with antimicrobial properties, as alternative methods for biocleaning cultural heritage assets.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Lakshmi Thangavelu ◽  
Abdul Habeeb Adil ◽  
Sohaib Arshad ◽  
Ezhilarasan Devaraj ◽  
Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni ◽  
...  

Background. The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are the most acceptable and excellent nanotechnology-based product among all metallic nanoparticles (noble metals). They are novel in terms of good conductivity, catalytic, chemical stability, and most significant anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. Aim. This review is aimed at understanding the synthesis, mechanism, and applications of Ag NPs in dentistry and their qualities to aid clinicians and researchers. Materials and Methods. A electronic search for literature was performed on the Google Scholar, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases for related articles using multiple keywords. The keywords used were antimicrobial properties, mechanism of action, and current uses of Ag NPs in dentistry. The search was limited to articles published in the English language; no deadline was set for publications. Results. About 185 articles were considered relevant to the reported research out of 6420 electronic search results. Only the publications that were required were received after all abstracts were assessed for relevance. After a final electronic and manual search, roughly 47 research publications were found to be helpful in this study. Conclusion. The Ag NPs, unlike other biomaterials used in dentistry, have unique biological features and could be used in endodontics, restorative dentistry, periodontology, prosthetic dentistry, implantology, and oral malignancies, because of their antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiviral effects.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 3872
Author(s):  
Nasrul Arahman ◽  
Cut Meurah Rosnelly ◽  
Diki Sukma Windana ◽  
Afrillia Fahrina ◽  
Silmina Silmina ◽  
...  

Membrane properties are highly affected by the composition of the polymer solutions that make up the membrane material and their influence in the filtration performance on the separation or purification process. This paper studies the effects of the addition of pluronic (Plu) and patchouli oil (PO) in a polyethersulfone (PES) solution on the membrane morphology, membrane hydrophilicity, and filtration performance in the pesticide removal compound in the water sample. Three types of membranes with the composition of PES, PES + Plu, and PES + Plu + patchouli oil were prepared through a polymer phase inversion technique in an aqueous solvent. The resulting membranes were then analyzed and tested for their mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, antimicrobial properties, and filtration performance (cross-flow ultrafiltration). The results show that all of the prepared membranes could reject 75% of the pesticide. The modification of the PES membrane with Plu was shown to increase the overall pore size by altering the pore morphology of the pristine PES, which eventually increased the permeation flux of the ultrafiltration process. Furthermore, patchouli oil added antimicrobial properties, potentially minimizing the biofilm formation on the membrane surface.


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