fused deposition
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Alexandre A. Cavalcante

Abstract: Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), better known as FDM© (Fused Deposition Modeling) is an additive manufacturing process (AM) by which a physical object can be created from a 3D model generated in the computer, through layer-by-layer deposition of semi-melted plastic filaments. However, parts produced by the FDM process have different characteristics compared to parts produced by traditional methods such as plastic injection, especially with regard to mechanical properties related to stresses (tensile, compression, torsion and shear), due to the anisotropic nature of the process deposition. Many works have been carried out in order to determine the influence between the FDM process parameters and the mechanical characteristics of parts produced by this technology. Traditionally, the studied parameters comprise those that are adjusted in slicing software, which does not satisfactorily reflect the bond between the layers. This work uses the area of contact between the layers as the determining factor of the transverse tensile strength to bedding and suggests a methodology for the determination of this parameter. Using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Taguchi analysis method, we identified the contact area between the layers as the most relevant parameter for tensile strength in the transverse direction of the printed layers with a relevance of more than 95% over the others investigated parameters. From the survey of relevant properties, new tests were carried out to determine a mathematical model to predict the minimum slicing parameters that should be used to obtain the required strength. Keywords: Fused Deposition Modeling, Mechanical Strength, AM Anisotropic Property, Layer Bond Properties, PLA.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 337
Enrique Cuan-Urquizo ◽  
Alberto Álvarez-Trejo ◽  
Andrés Robles Robles Gil ◽  
Viridiana Tejada-Ortigoza ◽  
Carmita Camposeco-Negrete ◽  

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) uses lattice arrangements, known as infill, within the fabricated part. The mechanical properties of parts fabricated via FDM are dependent on these infill patterns, which make their study of great relevance. One of the advantages of FDM is the wide range of materials that can be employed using this technology. Among these, polylactic acid (PLA)-wood has been recently gaining attention as it has become commercially available. In this work, the stiffness of two different lattice structures fabricated from PLA-wood material using FDM are studied: hexagonal and star. Rectangular samples with four different infill densities made of PLA-wood material were fabricated via FDM. Samples were subjected to 3-point bending to characterize the effective stiffness and their sensitivity to shear deformation. Lattice beams proved to be more sensitive to shear deformations, as including the contribution of shear in the apparent stiffness of these arrangements leads to more accurate results. This was evaluated by comparing the effective Young’s modulus characterized from 3-point bending using equations with and without shear inclusion. A longer separation between supports yielded closer results between both models (~41% for the longest separation tested). The effective stiffness as a function of the infill density of both topologies showed similar trends. However, the maximum difference obtained at low densities was the hexagonal topology that was ~60% stiffer, while the lowest difference was obtained at higher densities (star topology being stiffer by ~20%). Results for stiffness of PLA-wood samples were scattered. This was attributed to the defects at the lattice element level inherent to the material employed in this study, confirmed via micro-characterization.

Alberto S. de León ◽  
Fernando Núñez-Gálvez ◽  
Daniel Moreno-Sánchez ◽  
Natalia Fernández-Delgado ◽  
Sergio I. Molina

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 301
Jiale Hu ◽  
Suhail Mubarak ◽  
Kunrong Li ◽  
Xu Huang ◽  
Weidong Huang ◽  

Three-dimensional (3D) printing of continuous fiber-reinforced composites has been developed in recent decades as an alternative means to handle complex structures with excellent design flexibility and without mold forming. Although 3D printing has been increasingly used in the manufacturing industry, there is still room for the development of theories about how the process parameters affect microstructural properties to meet the mechanical requirements of the printed parts. In this paper, we investigated continuous carbon fiber-reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (CCF/PPS) as feedstock for fused deposition modeling (FDM) simulated by thermocompression. This study revealed that the samples manufactured using a layer-by-layer process have a high tensile strength up to 2041.29 MPa, which is improved by 68.8% compared with those prepared by the once-stacked method. Moreover, the mechanical–microstructure characterization relationships indicated that the compactness of the laminates is higher when the stacked CCF/PPS are separated, which can be explained based on both the void formation and the nanoindentation results. These reinforcements confirm the potential of remodeling the layer-up methods for the development of high-performance carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics. This study is of great significance to the improvement of the FDM process and opens broad prospects for the aerospace industry and continuous fiber-reinforced polymer matrix materials.

Katie Glover ◽  
Essyrose Mathew ◽  
Giulia Pitzanti ◽  
Erin Magee ◽  
Dimitrios A. Lamprou

AbstractThe treatment strategy required for the effective healing of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a complex process that is requiring several combined therapeutic approaches. As a result, there is a significant clinical and economic burden associated in treating DFU. Furthermore, these treatments are often unsuccessful, commonly resulting in lower-limb amputation. The use of drug-loaded scaffolds to treat DFU has previously been investigated using electrospinning and fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing techniques; however, the rapidly evolving field of bioprinting is creating new opportunities for innovation within this research area. In this study, 3D-bioprinted scaffolds with different designs have been fabricated for the delivery of an antibiotic (levoflocixin) to DFU. The scaffolds were fully characterised by a variety of techniques (e.g. SEM, DSC/TGA, FTIR, and mechanical characterisation), demonstrating excellent mechanical properties and providing sustained drug release for 4 weeks. This proof of concept study demonstrates the innovative potential of bioprinting technologies in fabrication of antibiotic scaffolds for the treatment of DFU. Graphical abstract

2022 ◽  
pp. 095400832110673
Pei Wang ◽  
Aigang Pan ◽  
Liu Xia ◽  
Yitao Cao ◽  
Hongjie Zhang ◽  

As a rapidly developing additive manufacturing technology, fused deposition modeling (FDM) has become widespread in many industry fields. It can fabricate complicated geometries using filament of thermoplastic materials such as PP, polylactic acid, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, etc. However, poor mechanical properties of raw materials limit their application. Poly-ether-ether-ketone is a type of special engineering plastic with high performance, which could be further reinforced by adding carbon fibers (CFs). During FDM process, the mechanical properties of printed parts are largely subject to careful selection of process parameters. To improve the mechanical properties of PEEK and CF/PEEK 3D-printed parts, the effects of various process parameters including building orientation, raster angle, nozzle temperature, platform temperature, ambient temperature, printing speed, layer thickness, infill density, and number of printed parts on mechanical properties were investigated. The tensile fracture interfaces of printed parts were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to explain the influence mechanism of process parameters. In the single factor experiments, flat and on-edge specimens show the best tensile and flexural strength, respectively; the specimens with raster angle ±45° and 0° show the best tensile and flexural strength, respectively. When the nozzle temperature at 500°C, platform temperature at 200°C, ambient temperature at 150°C, printing speed is 20 mm/s, layer thickness is 0.2 mm, and infill density is 100%, the printed parts exhibit the best mechanical properties.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 517
Satish Kumar ◽  
Tushar Kolekar ◽  
Shruti Patil ◽  
Arunkumar Bongale ◽  
Ketan Kotecha ◽  

Fused deposition modelling (FDM)-based 3D printing is a trending technology in the era of Industry 4.0 that manufactures products in layer-by-layer form. It shows remarkable benefits such as rapid prototyping, cost-effectiveness, flexibility, and a sustainable manufacturing approach. Along with such advantages, a few defects occur in FDM products during the printing stage. Diagnosing defects occurring during 3D printing is a challenging task. Proper data acquisition and monitoring systems need to be developed for effective fault diagnosis. In this paper, the authors proposed a low-cost multi-sensor data acquisition system (DAQ) for detecting various faults in 3D printed products. The data acquisition system was developed using an Arduino micro-controller that collects real-time multi-sensor signals using vibration, current, and sound sensors. The different types of fault conditions are referred to introduce various defects in 3D products to analyze the effect of the fault conditions on the captured sensor data. Time and frequency domain analyses were performed on captured data to create feature vectors by selecting the chi-square method, and the most significant features were selected to train the CNN model. The K-means cluster algorithm was used for data clustering purposes, and the bell curve or normal distribution curve was used to define individual sensor threshold values under normal conditions. The CNN model was used to classify the normal and fault condition data, which gave an accuracy of around 94%, by evaluating the model performance based on recall, precision, and F1 score.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 159
Laura Andrade Junqueira ◽  
Atabak Ghanizadeh Tabriz ◽  
Francisco José Raposo ◽  
Luana Rocha Carobini ◽  
Urias Pardócimo Vaz ◽  

In the current study, we have coupled Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) for the fabrication of plain polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) tablets followed by dispensing of minoxidil ethanolic solutions using inkjet printing. The use of a drop-on-solid printing approach facilitates an accurate and reproducible process while it controls the deposition of the drug amounts. For the purpose of the study, the effect of the solvent was investigated and minoxidil ink solutions of ethanol 70% v/v (P70) or absolute ethanol (P100) were applied on the plain PVA tablets. Physicochemical characterization showed that solvent miscibility with the polymer substrate plays a key role and can lead to the formation of drug crystals on the surface or drug absorption in the polymer matrix. The produced minoxidil tablets showed sustained release profiles or initial bursts strongly affected by the solvent grade used for dispensing the required dose on drug loaded 3D printed tablets. This paradigm demonstrates that the coupling of FDM and inkjet printing technologies could be used for rapid development of personalized dosage forms.

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