tensile strength
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2022 ◽  
Vol 211 ◽  
pp. 106016
Roberta Rossi ◽  
Pietro Picuno ◽  
Massimo Fagnano ◽  
Mariana Amato

Alexandre A. Cavalcante

Abstract: Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), better known as FDM© (Fused Deposition Modeling) is an additive manufacturing process (AM) by which a physical object can be created from a 3D model generated in the computer, through layer-by-layer deposition of semi-melted plastic filaments. However, parts produced by the FDM process have different characteristics compared to parts produced by traditional methods such as plastic injection, especially with regard to mechanical properties related to stresses (tensile, compression, torsion and shear), due to the anisotropic nature of the process deposition. Many works have been carried out in order to determine the influence between the FDM process parameters and the mechanical characteristics of parts produced by this technology. Traditionally, the studied parameters comprise those that are adjusted in slicing software, which does not satisfactorily reflect the bond between the layers. This work uses the area of contact between the layers as the determining factor of the transverse tensile strength to bedding and suggests a methodology for the determination of this parameter. Using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Taguchi analysis method, we identified the contact area between the layers as the most relevant parameter for tensile strength in the transverse direction of the printed layers with a relevance of more than 95% over the others investigated parameters. From the survey of relevant properties, new tests were carried out to determine a mathematical model to predict the minimum slicing parameters that should be used to obtain the required strength. Keywords: Fused Deposition Modeling, Mechanical Strength, AM Anisotropic Property, Layer Bond Properties, PLA.

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 160
Mahmoud Ahmed El-Sayed ◽  
Khamis Essa ◽  
Hany Hassanin

Entrapped double oxide film defects are known to be the most detrimental defects during the casting of aluminium alloys. In addition, hydrogen dissolved in the aluminium melt was suggested to pass into the defects to expand them and cause hydrogen porosity. In this work, the effect of two important casting parameters (the filtration and hydrogen content) on the properties of Al–7 Si–0.3 Mg alloy castings was studied using a full factorial design of experiments approach. Casting properties such as the Weibull modulus and position parameter of the elongation and the tensile strength were considered as response parameters. The results suggested that adopting 10 PPI filters in the gating system resulted in a considerable boost of the Weibull moduli of the tensile strength and elongation due to the enhanced mould filling conditions that minimised the possibility of oxide film entrainment. In addition, the results showed that reducing the hydrogen content in the castings samples from 0.257 to 0.132 cm3/100 g Al was associated with a noticeable decrease in the size of bifilm defects with a corresponding improvement in the mechanical properties. Such significant effect of the process parameters studied on the casting properties suggests that the more careful and quiescent mould filling practice and the lower the hydrogen level of the casting, the higher the quality and reliability of the castings produced.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Xian Shi ◽  
Xiaoqiao He ◽  
Ligang Sun ◽  
Xuefeng Liu

Abstract Networks based on carbon nanotube (CNT) have been widely utilized to fabricate flexible electronic devices, but defects inevitably exist in these structures. In this study, we investigate the influence of the CNT-unit defects on the mechanical properties of a honeycomb CNT-based network, super carbon nanotube (SCNT), through molecular dynamics simulations. Results show that tensile strengths of the defective SCNTs are affected by the defect number, distribution continuity and orientation. Single-defect brings 0 ~ 25% reduction of the tensile strength with the dependency on defect position and the reduction is over 50% when the defect number increases to three. The distribution continuity induces up to 20% differences of tensile strengths for SCNTs with the same defect number. A smaller arranging angle of defects to the tensile direction leads to a higher tensile strength. Defective SCNTs possess various modes of stress concentration with different concentration degrees under the combined effect of defect number, arranging direction and continuity, for which the underlying mechanism can be explained by the effective crack length of the fracture mechanics. Fundamentally, the force transmission mode of the SCNT controls the influence of defects and the cases that breaking more force transmission paths cause larger decreases of tensile strengths. Defects are non-negligible factors of the mechanical properties of CNT-based networks and understanding the influence of defects on CNT-based networks is valuable to achieve the proper design of CNT-based electronic devices with better performances. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110651
Ruiming Cao ◽  
Bai Zhang ◽  
Luming Wang ◽  
Jianming Ding ◽  
Xianhua Chen

Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are considered an eco-friendly alternative to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for mitigating greenhouse-gas emissions and enabling efficient waste recycling. In this paper, an innovative seawater sea-sand concrete (SWSSC), that is, seawater sea-sand alkali-activated concrete (SWSSAAC), was developed using AAMs instead of OPC to explore the application of marine resources and to improve the durability of conventional SWSSC structures. Then, three types of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars, that is, basalt-FRP, glass-FRP, and carbon-FRP bars, were selected to investigate their bond behavior with SWSSAAC at different alkaline dosages (3%, 4%, and 6% Na2O contents). The experimental results manifested that the utilization of the alkali-activated binders can increase the splitting tensile strength ( ft) of the concrete due to the denser microstructures of AAMs than OPC pastes. This improved characteristic was helpful in enhancing the bond performance of FRP bars, especially the slope of bond-slip curves in the ascending section (i.e., bond stiffness). Approximately three times enhancement in terms of the initial bond rigidity was achieved with SWSSAAC compared to SWSSC at the same concrete strength. Furthermore, compared with the BFRP and GFRP bars, the specimens reinforced with the CFRP bars experienced higher bond strength and bond rigidity due to their relatively high tensile strength and elastic modulus. Additionally, significant improvements in initial bond stiffness and bond strength were also observed as the alkaline contents (i.e., concrete strength) of the SWSSAAC were aggrandized, demonstrating the integration of the FRP bars and SWSSAAC is achievable, which contributes to an innovative channel for the development of SWSSC pavements or structures.

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