Psychiatric Medication
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2022 ◽  
Vol 55 ◽  
pp. 4-7
Mark Abie Horowitz ◽  
David Taylor

2021 ◽  
pp. 140349482110366
Martin Bernstorff ◽  
Charlotte Ulrikka Rask ◽  
Dorte Rytter ◽  
Stefan Nygaard Hansen ◽  
Bodil Hammer Bech

Aims: This study aimed to examine the association between multiple health complaints (MHC) in pre-adolescence and prescription redemption in adolescence. Methods: This was a nationwide population-based study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort for an average of 6.9 years (2010–2018). A total of 96,382 children were invited at the age of 11. A modified version of the Health Behaviour in School Children Symptom Checklist was dichotomised into the World Health Organization’s definition of MHC (⩾2 complaints, each with a frequency of at least weekly, yes/no). The number of prescriptions was retrieved from Danish registries. Negative binomial regression estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing children with MHC to children without. Prescription redemption was further stratified by psychiatric/somatic medication and into subtypes of prescriptions. Results: A total of 47,365 (49.1%) children participated ( Mage=11.2 years, 52% girls). MHC were reported by 10.3%. The unadjusted IRR (MHC vs. no MHC) of all types of redemptions was 1.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49–1.64). Results were robust to adjustment for socio-demographic variables and somatic/psychiatric morbidity at baseline (IRR=1.47; 95% CI 1.40–1.54). Associations were especially strong for psychiatric medication (adjusted IRR=3.88; 95% CI 3.43–4.40) and were modified by neither sex nor maternal education. Conclusions: MHC in pre-adolescents predict prescription redemption. This implies that changes in MHC might be indicative of changes in public health. This requires further study, as the cause of a change in reporting of symptoms might also cause a change in treatment response. The latter determines whether prescriptions are treating ill-being or needlessly medicalising subjective symptoms.

Sahar S. Eshtehardi ◽  
Ashley A. Taylor ◽  
Tzuan A. Chen ◽  
Marcel A. de Dios ◽  
Virmarie Correa-Fernández ◽  

Psychiatric medication nonadherence continues to be a leading cause of poor health outcomes for individuals experiencing homelessness. Identifying the sociodemographic factors that contribute to medication nonadherence may help guide strategies to care for and support this group. This study examined 200 adults with depression diagnoses and active anti-depressant prescriptions (Mage = 43.98 ± 12.08, 59.4% Caucasian, 58.5% male, 70% uninsured, 89.5% unemployed) and 181 adults with anxiety diagnoses and active anti-anxiety prescriptions (Mage = 43.45 ± 11.02, 54.4% Caucasian, 57.5% male, 66.3% uninsured, 88.9% unemployed) recruited from six homeless-serving agencies in Oklahoma City. Self-reported sociodemographic variables included: age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, monthly income, employment status, and health insurance status. Adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed that employed (OR = 4.022, CI0.95: 1.244–13.004) and insured (OR = 2.923, CI0.95: 1.225–6.973) participants had greater odds of depression medication nonadherence. For anxiety, being employed (OR = 3.573, CI0.95: 1.160–11.010) was associated with greater odds of anxiety medication nonadherence, whereas having depression and anxiety diagnostic comorbidity (OR = 0.333, CI0.95: 0.137–0.810) was associated with lower odds of anxiety medication nonadherence. Interventions aimed at facilitating accessible prescription acquisition or otherwise reducing barriers to prescription medications for employed adults, including those with health insurance, may benefit adherence, but more research is needed. Future studies would benefit from using a qualitative approach to better delineate nuanced barriers to psychiatric medication adherence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Mathew Gullotta ◽  
David Greenberg ◽  
Olayan Albalawi ◽  
Armita Adily ◽  
Azar Karminia ◽  

Abstract Objective Prisoners complete suicide and self-harm more frequently than members of the community. Sex offenders have been found to be at greater risk of engaging in these behaviours. This study examines the characteristics, prevalence, and predictors of self-harm and suicide attempts among: sex offenders that only victimise children (ChildSOs); adults (AdultSOs); or both (age-crossover polymorphous; PolySOs). Methods Data from three waves (1996, 2001, 2009) of the New South Wales (NSW) Inmate Health Survey was linked to the State’s re-offending database to identify men with histories of sexual offending. The health surveys captured self-report data on self-harm and suicidality. Results Non-sexual violent offenders (15%) and AdultSOs (14%) had the highest rate of self-harm, significantly more than ChildSOs (11%), non-sexual non-violent offenders (10%), and PolySOs (0%). Several factors significantly predicted self-harm at the bivariate level for both ChildSOs and AdultSOs, with unique predictors for each group. At the multivariate level, manic-depression trended towards significance for ChildSOs and any mental health condition remained a significant predictor for AdultSOs who self-harmed relative to AdultSOs who had not (aOR = 11.989, 95%CI [1.14, 126.66]). Approximately 23% of AdultSOs, 22% of PolySOs, and 19% of ChildSOs reported a suicide attempt throughout their lifetime, whereas only 15% of non-sexual non-violent offenders reported an attempt. At the bivariate level, few factors were significant for ChildSOs while several factors were significant for AdultSOs. At the multivariate level, a diagnosis of depression and treatment with psychiatric medication trended towards being significant predictors of suicide attempts for ChildSOs. In contrast, treatment with psychiatric medication (aOR = 25.732, 95%CI [1.91, 347.19])] remained a significant predictor for AdultSOs who attempted suicide relative to AdultSOs who had not, as well as historical psychiatric hospitalisation (aOR = 6.818, 95%CI [1.04, 44.82]) and self-harm (aOR = 5.825, 95%CI [1.31, 25.99]). Conclusion Sex offenders are at significantly higher risk of attempting and completing suicide relative to non-sexual non-violent offenders and warrant special attention. The prevalence rates and predictors of self-harm and suicidality suggest differences between sex offender subgroups may exist. These hold implications for the criminal justice and public health systems for addressing needs and identifying those most at risk of self-harm and suicide.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Emma Kaminskiy ◽  
Yaara Zisman-Ilani ◽  
Shulamit Ramon

Shared decisionmaking (SDM) is a recommended health communication approach in mental health settings. Yet, implementation of SDM in psychiatric consultations discussing medication management is challenging. Insufficient attention has been given to examine the views of both clinicians and service users together about the experiences of SDM in psychiatric medication management. The purpose of this paper is to examine the views of service users, community psychiatric nurses, and psychiatrists about enablers and barriers of SDM. A thematic analysis of 30 semi structured interviews with service users, psychiatrists, and community psychiatric nurses, in a community mental health team in the UK, was conducted. A service user advisory group was involved in all phases of the research cycle, including data collection, analysis, and dissemination. The results offer a detailed contextualized account of how medication decisions are made. For psychiatrists and service user participants SDM is seen as a way of enhancing service users' engagement in and control over treatment decisions. While psychiatrists value the transactional benefits of SDM, service user participants and psychiatric nurses conceptualize SDM as a long-term endeavor embedded within therapeutic partnerships. For service users these partnerships mitigate acknowledged problems of feeling unable to be fully involved during times of crisis. This study identified a range of barriers and facilitators to SDM concerning psychiatric medications from the lived experience of service users and the professional experience of clinicians. Furthermore, it indicates new potential intervention points to support SDM in psychiatric medication decisions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 108-116
Kristen R. Fox ◽  
Shaina L. Gulin ◽  
Heather M. Bruschwein ◽  
Terra Rose ◽  
Eileen J. Burker ◽  

Introduction: Living donor transplantation of kidneys accounts for one quarter of transplants performed in the United States. Careful screening of psychiatric history is a standard part of the donor evaluation. Little is known about the impact of psychiatric history on post-donation course and pain experience. Research Question: This study investigated whether psychiatric history was associated with pain and related outcomes among living kidney donors. Design: A retrospective medical record review was conducted of 75 living kidney donors who underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. All donor candidates completed a psychological evaluation and were approved for donation by a multidisciplinary committee. History of psychiatric diagnosis and psychiatric medication use were obtained from donors’ psychological evaluation reports. Data on pain and related outcomes (ie, history of prescribed pain medication, post-donation pain, opioid use, length of hospital stay, post-donation emergency department visits), as well as demographic and donation-related characteristics were also abstracted from medical records. Results: Psychiatric history, including current or historical psychiatric diagnosis or psychiatric medication use, in living kidney donors who were evaluated and approved for donation by a transplant psychologist was not associated with greater perceived pain, greater use of opioid pain medication in the post-operative period, longer hospital stays, or more frequent post-donation emergency department visits. Discussion: The findings demonstrate that carefully screened donors with a psychiatric history have comparable pain-related outcomes as donors without a psychiatric history. This study highlights the importance of the pre-donation psychological evaluation in promoting positive postdonation outcomes through careful selection of donor candidates.

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