Psychiatric Patients
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2021 ◽  
Miguel Mengual-Pujante ◽  
Inés Morán-Sánchez ◽  
Aurelio Luna-Ruiz ◽  
María-Dolores Pérez-Cárceles

Abstract Background: Police officers have become an important part of psychiatric patients´ care; however, few studies have assessed the Police´s attitudes toward these patients. Our aim is to analyze the effect of the stigma associated with different mental illnesses on police officers.Methods: the attitudes of 927 officers of the Spanish National Police Force towards a person with schizophrenia or depressive disorder in the role of person in need of assistance, victim, witness, or suspect, were assessed by means of the Attribution Questionnaire adapted to the police context. Different socio-demographic variables were also collected. Results: Police officers expressed more willingness to help, felt more pity and considered psychiatric patients to be less responsible for their situation than people who were not described as being mentally ill. They also showed increased feelings of anger and avoidance, greater danger perception and need for segregation and coercion for medical treatment, especially in schizophrenia. Being a woman, the elderly and having more working experience, are associated with less stigmatizing attitudes among officers. Conclusions: Police officers have certain attitudes about mental illness particularly schizophrenia, that require special attention, as they may disrupt police action. We found several factors associated with the persistence of these stigmatizing attitudes in the Police that can guide us to implement training programs to promote attitude changing especially at the beginning of the professional career.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Marija Janković ◽  
Geert van Boxtel ◽  
Erik Masthoff ◽  
Elien De Caluwé ◽  
Stefan Bogaerts

The long-term changes of dynamic risk and protective factors have rarely been studied in forensic psychiatric patients. We utilized a latent growth curve analysis to investigate trajectories of risk and protective factors over time in all 722 male forensic psychiatric patients who were unconditionally released between 2004 and 2014 from any of 12 Dutch forensic psychiatric centers (FPCs). The study covered the period from juridical observation until unconditional release. Moreover, we investigated whether these trajectories differ between patients depending on their psychiatric diagnosis namely substance use disorders (SUD), psychotic disorders, and cluster B personality disorders (PDs). In addition, we also investigated whether SUD may influence changes in risk and protective factors in a group of psychotic and cluster B PDs patients, respectively. Overall, findings suggest that all changes in dynamic risk and protective factors could be depicted by two phases of patients' stay in the FPCs. Specifically, most changes on dynamic risk and protective factors occurred at the beginning of treatment, that is, from the time of juridical assessment up to the time of unguided leave. Moreover, the moment of unguided leave could be considered the ‘turning point’ in the treatment of offenders. We also found that SUD and psychotic patients changed the most in the first phase of their stay, while cluster B PDs patients changed the most in the second phase. However, SUD did not modify changes in risk and protective factors in psychotic and cluster B PDs patients. These findings may help improve offender treatment and crime prevention strategies.

2021 ◽  
pp. JARC-D-20-00023
Danny Birt ◽  
Jerilyn Klingenberg

After years of inpatient treatment in a locked facility, psychiatric patients who are preparing to transition to lower-security residential settings often benefit from bridging that continuum of care with supervised community excursions. In this study, facilitators and patients collaborated to identify and engage in a variety of arts-related experiences and settings in nearby cities and nature areas as a medium through which to help reconnect patients in a state psychiatric hospital with their surrounding community. Preliminary findings from data gathered included increased positive affect and quality of life, decreased feelings of isolation and institutionalization, more positive regard for treatment, and maintained or improved pace of patient progress toward discharge and community reintegration. Supervised therapeutic exposure to arts in the community appears to be an indicated clinical option to help motivate and prepare select psychiatric inpatients for community reintegration. As this is an information-sharing article regarding research-informed practice rather than the result of a research project, formal research is recommended as a next step to establish external validity and further the field’s knowledge of this topic.

2021 ◽  
pp. 136346152110363
Janne L. Punski-Hoogervorst ◽  
Sarah N. Rhuggenaath ◽  
Jan Dirk Blom

Brua is an Afro-Caribbean religion and healing tradition predominantly practised on the ABC islands of the former Netherlands Antilles. It is grounded in oral tradition and shrouded in strict social taboos. Existing literature suggests that the majority of people on and from the islands are familiar with Brua and that it plays a substantial role in shaping their illness conception and idioms of distress. A lack of knowledge of Brua may therefore lead biomedically trained health professionals to misdiagnose these patients. This article discusses how religious beliefs related to Brua influence the illness concepts and idioms of distress of psychiatric patients originating from the ABC Islands, based on semi-structured interviews with former islanders receiving treatment at a psychiatric institute in the Netherlands. We found that of the 29 interviewees, 93.1% knew what Brua involved, 72.4% believed in it, 48.2% had first-hand experience with Brua practices, and 34.5% attributed their mental illness to Brua with greater or lesser certainty. However, only one patient had previously discussed her belief in Brua with her psychiatrist and only when asked to do so. The role of psychoactive substances in the context of Brua practices was negligible. Thus, the present study indicates that the majority of psychiatric patients from the ABC islands are familiar with Brua, but feel reluctant to discuss their concerns in this area with mental health professionals. Recommendations for clinical practice and further research are provided, including the need for a culture-sensitive approach and integrative care.

Asara Vasupanrajit ◽  
Ketsupar Jirakran ◽  
Chavit Tunvirachaisakul ◽  
Marco Solmi ◽  
Michael Maes

A meta-analysis showed a significant association between activated immune-inflammatory and nitro-oxidative (IO&NS) pathways and suicide attempts (SA). There are no data whether suicidal ideation (SI) is accompanied by activated IO&NS pathways and whether there are differences between SA and SI. The current study searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, for articles published from inception until May 10, 2021, and systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed the association between recent SA/SI (< 3 months) and IO&NS biomarkers. We included studies which compared psychiatric patients with and without SA and SI and controls (either healthy controls or patients without SA or SI) and used meta-analysis (random-effect model with restricted maximum-likelihood) to delineate effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Our search included 59 studies comprising 4.034 SA/SI cases and 12.377 controls. Patients with SA/SI showed activated IO&NS pathways (SMD: 0.299; CI: 0.200; 0.397) when compared to controls. The immune profiles were more strongly associated with SA than with SI, particularly when compared to healthy controls, as evidenced by activated IO&NS pathways (SMD: 0.796; CI: 0.503; 1.089), an immune-inflammatory response (SMD: 1.409; CI: 0.637; 1.462), inflammation (SMD: 1.200; CI: 0.584; 1.816), and neurotoxicity (SMD: 0.904; CI: 0.431; 1.378). The effects sizes of the IO&NS, immune-inflammatory response and inflammatory profile were significantly greater in SA than in SI. In conclusion: increased neurotoxicity due to inflammation and nitro-oxidative stress and lowered neuroprotection may explain at least in part why psychiatric patients show increased SA and SI. The IO&NS pathways are more pronounced in recent SA than in SI.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0256972
William Yue ◽  
Sorana Caldwell ◽  
Victoria Risbrough ◽  
Susan Powell ◽  
Xianjin Zhou

High titers of anti-NMDAR1 autoantibodies in brain cause anti-NMDAR1 encephalitis that displays psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia and/or other psychiatric disorders in addition to neurological symptoms. Low titers of anti-NMDAR1 autoantibodies are reported in the blood of a subset of the general human population and psychiatric patients. Since ~0.1–0.2% of blood circulating antibodies cross the blood-brain barriers and antibodies can persist for months and years in human blood, it is important to investigate whether chronic presence of these blood circulating anti-NMDAR1 autoantibodies may impair human cognitive functions and contribute to the development of psychiatric symptoms. Here, we generated mice carrying low titers of anti-NMDAR1 autoantibodies in blood against a single antigenic epitope of mouse NMDAR1. Mice carrying the anti-NMDAR1 autoantibodies are healthy and display no differences in locomotion, sensorimotor gating, and contextual memory compared to controls. Chronic presence of the blood circulating anti-NMDAR1 autoantibodies, however, is sufficient to impair T-maze spontaneous alternation in the integrity of blood-brain barriers across all 3 independent mouse cohorts, indicating a robust cognitive deficit in spatial working memory and/or novelty detection. Our studies implicate that chronic presence of low titers of blood circulating anti-NMDAR1 autoantibodies may impair cognitive functions in both the general healthy human population and psychiatric patients.

Amira Ali ◽  
Abdulmajeed A. Alkhamees ◽  
Hiroaki Hori ◽  
Yoshiharu Kim ◽  
Hiroshi Kunugi

Despite extensive investigations of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) since its development in 1995, its factor structure and other psychometric properties still need to be firmly established, with several calls for revising its item structure. Employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study examined the factor structure of the DASS-21 and five shortened versions of the DASS-21 among psychiatric patients (N = 168) and the general public (N = 992) during the COVID-19 confinement period in Saudi Arabia. Multigroup CFA, Mann Whitney W test, Spearman’s correlation, and coefficient alpha were used to examine the shortened versions of the DASS-21 (DASS-13, DASS-12, DASS-9 (two versions), and DASS-8) for invariance across age and gender groups, discriminant validity, predictive validity, item coverage, and internal consistency, respectively. Compared with the DASS-21, all three-factor structures of the shortened versions expressed good fit, with the DASS-8 demonstrating the best fit and highest item loadings on the corresponding factors in both samples (χ2(16, 15) = 16.5, 67.0; p = 0.420, 0.000; CFI= 1.000, 0.998; TLI = 0.999, 0.997; RMSEA = 0.013, 0.059, SRMR = 0.0186, 0.0203). It expressed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across age and gender groups. Its internal consistency was comparable to other versions (α = 0.94). Strong positive correlations of the DASS-8 and its subscales with the DASS-21 and its subscales (r = 0.97 to 0.81) suggest adequate item coverage and good predictive validity of this version. The DASS-8 and its subscales distinguished the clinical sample from the general public at the same level of significance expressed by the DASS-21 and other shortened versions, supporting its discriminant validity. Neither the DASS-21 nor the shortened versions distinguished patients diagnosed with depression and anxiety from other conditions. The DASS-8 represents a valid short version of the DASS-21, which may be useful in research and clinical practice for quick identification of individuals with potential psychopathologies. Diagnosing depression/anxiety disorders may be further confirmed in a next step by clinician-facilitated examinations. Brevity of the DASS-21 would save time and effort used for filling the questionnaire and support comprehensive assessments by allowing the inclusion of more measures on test batteries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Aurélio Restellini ◽  
Omar Kherad ◽  
Stefan Kaiser

Abstract Background Inpatient treatment is not the most beneficial treatment setting for many patients with psychiatric disorders and overcrowding is a recurrent problem for psychiatric hospitals. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to limit avoidable inpatient treatment. This study sought to evaluate the impact of an emergency hotline that was developed to better manage psychiatric patients, particularly for identifying those requiring a hospital admission. Methods This pre-post intervention quality improvement study compared changes in the management of psychiatric patients’ admission before and after the introduction of an emergency hotline where a specialist in psychiatry examines all inpatient referral from private practitioners. Main outcomes were the change in proportion of hospital admissions after referral from a private practitioner before and within 3 months after the intervention. Secondary outcomes were the average length of hospital stay, proportion of non-voluntary admission, the time required for triage and the impact of the intervention on treatments’ costs. Fisher’s Exact test was used to test the primary hypothesis of difference in the proportion of hospitalized patients before and after introduction of the emergency hotline. Secondary outcomes were tested with Student’s t-test for continuous variables and Fishers’s Exact test for proportions. Results Among 45 admission requests from private practitioners during the 3 months after introduction of the new emergency hotline, 25 (55.6%) were accepted as inpatient treatment, while 20 (44%) were redirected to more appropriate outpatient treatments. There was a highly significant difference from the baseline period during which all 34 requests were accepted (44% vs 100%, p < 0.001). In addition, for the patients hospitalized after the introduction of the emergency hotline there was a trend-level reduction of the average length of stay (9.32 days vs 17.35 days). Conclusion Implementation of an emergency hotline manage by a specialist in psychiatry for admissions to acute psychiatric wards is feasible and simple to use. Importantly, it allows to significantly decrease the proportion of hospitalizations. Additional studies are needed to assess the generalizability of these exploratory results to other health care settings.

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