mental disorders
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2022 ◽  
Vol 55 ◽  
pp. 112-157
Claudia Pisanu ◽  
Giovanni Severino ◽  
Ilario De Toma ◽  
Mara Dierssen ◽  
Paolo Fusar-Poli ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 280-284
Putri Aliya Ahadini ◽  
Muhamad Bagus Wira Utama ◽  
Adhyatma Ismu Reihan ◽  
Reny I’tishom

Mental disorders are one of the health disorders that contribute to high rates of disability and mortality worldwide. The current therapeutic modalities used to treat mental disorders are medical and psychological approaches, but it becomes problematic in some conditions, such as drug-resistant mental disorders. Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC) technology can be used as an alternative to overcome this problem. This technology uses radio waves which are guaranteed to be non-invasive and do not cause side effects. This technology enables neuromodulation effects by maximizing cell polarity and optimizing endogenous bioelectric activity. Of course, the REAC's mechanism as a neuromodulator and being a non-invasive technology is safe to use. It allows REAC to be used as an adjuvant therapy to reduce symptoms of several mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, phobias, and stress.


Shift work is a social phenomenon with adverse effects on the lives and health of people in various aspects. This adverse effect decreases shift workers’ ability over a time period. The aim of the present study was to survey disturbances due to shift work and some disorders associated with work ability index among nurses in educational hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 33 nurses at the Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. The survey of shift workers questionnaire (SOS) and the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire was used as data collection tools. The related data was analyzed based on the descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation test, and Spearman correlation test using IBM SPSS software version 19. The results showed that 97% of problems related to the effects of shift work on the individuals’ lives, families, and musculoskeletal disorders, 87.9% related to insomnia and social problems, and 75.8% related to mental disorders. Although it showed a significant relationship between the workability index with the variable of experience and mental disorders, it showed no significant relationship between the prevalence of insomnia and musculoskeletal disorders variables. The results of this study showed that shift working disrupts mental, social, and physical health that ultimately adversely affect the ability of shift workers. Therefore, it was recommended to adjust working hours and allocate the appropriate shifts to improve the workability of individuals.

2022 ◽  
Mitjan Morr ◽  
Xiqin Liu ◽  
Rene Hurlemann ◽  
Benjamin Becker ◽  
Dirk Scheele

Loneliness has been associated with detrimental effects on mental and physical health and is increasingly recognized as a critical public health issue which may be further exacerbated by societal challenges such as increasing urbanization, an aging society as well as the COVID-19 pandemic. We here review recent findings on the neurocognitive mechanisms and brain alterations that underpin social disconnectedness, therapeutic approaches for chronic loneliness and how these lines of research can be integrated to improve the efficacy of loneliness interventions in healthy individuals and patients with mental disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 21-27
Neni Sholihat ◽  
Indra Gunawan ◽  
Nia Restiana ◽  
Rosy Rosnawanty ◽  
Saryomo Saryomo

Based on Riskedas data in 2013, the prevalence of mental disorders in Indonesia is about 6% of the population has emotional disorders and 1.7% of serious mental disorders. In West Java the prevalence reaches 1.6%, while in Tasikmalaya City there are 171 sufferers. Mental disorders can be caused by biological, psychological and socio-cultural factors, it can also be caused by inadequate provision of patient care, especially in small towns and villages. Patients with chronic mental disorders need care management that involves various elements in the healing process, such as family, community and caregivers. The role of care giver which is very influential in the patient's healing process, they are in charge of providing emotional support and the necessities of life. The complex problems in patient care caused many of them not to be well cared for. One of the phenomena was found at the Mentari Hati Social Institusion. The caregiver's low educational background, and lack of knowledge in care, are among the factors causing the ineffective treatment provided. For this reason, a mental nursing service management program is needed which is managed in a Community Mental Health Nursing (CMHN) program which aims to empower caregivers by providing consultation and education services, and providing information on mental health principles. The purpose of this community service activity is to improve the care giver's ability to care for mental patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Hua He ◽  
Yongfu Yu ◽  
Hui Wang ◽  
Carsten Lyng Obel ◽  
Fei Li ◽  

Objectives:The associations of long-term risks of the full spectrum of mental disorders with clinically reassuring but suboptimal score range 7–9 remain unclear. This study investigated these associations during up to 38 years of follow-up.Methods:In a nationwide cohort study of 2,213,822 singletons born in Denmark during 1978–2015, we used cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of mental disorders with a 95% CI.Results:A total of 3,00,679 (13.6%) individuals were diagnosed with mental disorders. The associations between suboptimal Apgar score 7–9 and mental disorders differed by attained age. In childhood (≤ 18 years), declining Apgar scores were associated with increased risks of overall mental disorders with HRs (95% CI) of 1.13(1.11-1.15), 1.34 (1.27–1.41), and 1.48 (1.31–1.67) for Apgar scores of 7–9, 4–6, and 1–3, respectively, compared with a score of 10. A dose-response association was seen even within the score range from 9 to 7 (HR 1.11 [95% CI: 1.08–1.13], 1.14 [1.10–1.18], and 1.20 [1.14–1.27], respectively). Of note, individuals with scores of 7–9 had increased risks of organic disorders (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.05–1.53), neurotic disorders (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03–1.11), and a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as intellectual disability (1.87, 1.76–1.98), childhood autism (1.13, 1.05–1.22) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (1.10, 1.06–1.15). In early adulthood (19–39 years), suboptimal Apgar scores 7–9 were not associated with the risks of overall and specific mental disorders.Conclusion:Infants born with clinically reassuring but suboptimal 5-min scores 7–9 are at increased risks of a wide spectrum of mental disorders in childhood.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Ni Ketut Sri Diniari

Detection of mental disorders in the elderly are using the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) screening/questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and/or or based on structured interviews. The elderly who had complete screening and interview data were included in the study sample, i.e., 85 people. From 85 elderly as a participant, 65 people (76.4%) had a good cognitive, 10 (11.7%) moderate cognitive, and 5 severe cognitive (5.8%), but their daily activities were still good. The results of the screening GDS showed 70 people with mild depression (82.4%), moderate depression in 13 people (15.3%) and 2 people with severe depression (2.3%). The results of the screening with DASS show 15 elderly people with depression (17.5%), 55 people with anxiety (65%) and 15 people experiencing stress (17.5%). Screening for elderly sleep quality with the PSQI for elderly showed 60 people with disrupted sleep quality (70.5%) and 15 people with good sleep quality (17.6%). A 68 people elderly (80%) complained of mild pain and 17 people (20%) with moderate pain by screening using the VAS, where the location of the pain varied in the body and leg areas.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Mathilde M. Husky ◽  
Ekaterina Sadikova ◽  
Sue Lee ◽  
Jordi Alonso ◽  
Randy P. Auerbach ◽  

Abstract Background This study investigates associations of several dimensions of childhood adversities (CAs) with lifetime mental disorders, 12-month disorder persistence, and impairment among incoming college students. Methods Data come from the World Mental Health International College Student Initiative (WMH-ICS). Web-based surveys conducted in nine countries (n = 20 427) assessed lifetime and 12-month mental disorders, 12-month role impairment, and seven types of CAs occurring before the age of 18: parental psychopathology, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect, bullying victimization, and dating violence. Poisson regressions estimated associations using three dimensions of CA exposure: type, number, and frequency. Results Overall, 75.8% of students reported exposure to at least one CA. In multivariate regression models, lifetime onset and 12-month mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were all associated with either the type, number, or frequency of CAs. In contrast, none of these associations was significant when predicting disorder persistence. Of the three CA dimensions examined, only frequency was associated with severe role impairment among students with 12-month disorders. Population-attributable risk simulations suggest that 18.7–57.5% of 12-month disorders and 16.3% of severe role impairment among those with disorders were associated with these CAs. Conclusion CAs are associated with an elevated risk of onset and impairment among 12-month cases of diverse mental disorders but are not involved in disorder persistence. Future research on the associations of CAs with psychopathology should include fine-grained assessments of CA exposure and attempt to trace out modifiable intervention targets linked to mechanisms of associations with lifetime psychopathology and burden of 12-month mental disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Peilin Meng ◽  
Jing Ye ◽  
Xiaomeng Chu ◽  
Bolun Cheng ◽  
Shiqiang Cheng ◽  

AbstractIt is well-accepted that both environment and genetic factors contribute to the development of mental disorders (MD). However, few genetic studies used time-to-event data analysis to identify the susceptibility genetic variants associated with MD and explore the role of environment factors in these associations. In order to detect novel genetic loci associated with MD based on the time-to-event data and identify the role of environmental factors in them, this study recruited 376,806 participants from the UK Biobank cohort. The MD outcomes (including overall MD status, anxiety, depression and substance use disorders (SUD)) were defined based on in-patient hospital, self-reported and death registry data collected in the UK Biobank. SPACOX approach was used to identify the susceptibility loci for MD using the time-to-event data of the UK Biobank cohort. And then we estimated the associations between identified candidate loci, fourteen environment factors and MD through a phenome-wide association study and mediation analysis. SPACOX identified multiple candidate loci for overall MD status, depression and SUD, such as rs139813674 (P value = 8.39 × 10–9, ZNF684) for overall MD status, rs7231178 (DCC, P value = 2.11 × 10–9) for depression, and rs10228494 (FOXP2, P value = 6.58 × 10–10) for SUD. Multiple environment factors could influence the associations between identified loci and MD, such as confide in others and felt hated. Our study identified novel candidate loci for MD, highlighting the strength of time-to-event data based genetic association studies. We also observed that multiple environment factors could influence the association between susceptibility loci and MD.

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