Mental Disorders
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Author(s):  
Ashish Kumar Dixit ◽  
Nibha Giri ◽  
Shishir Singh

Abstract Objectives The long-term consequences of COVID-19 survivors care and post-coronavirus infection are not yet well understood. The review aims to see whether homoeopathy can help COVID-19 survivors recover from its consequences and improve their quality of life. Content A systematic search of published articles for post-COVID sequelae and the impact of Homoeopathy were conducted. For the literature search, the major electronic bio-medical database PubMed/MEDLINE was used. In addition, supplementary searches were conducted through the references of those published articles. Summary A total of 113 records were identified of which 61 studies included for this review. Homoeopathy is effective in the treatment of mental disorders including anxiety and depressive disorder (ADD), some research studies have found, although systematic reviews disagree. Likewise, some medical societies denounce homoeopathy for pain management; other literature shows that it can be used to treat pain effectively. Homoeopathy can aid in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, as Crataegus, a homoeopathic medication, was found to be just as effective as a standard angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and diuretic treatment for minor cardiac insufficiency. The outcomes for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Influenza, and Acute Respiratory Tract Infections (ARTIs) are also promising. Outlook Based on the results of homoeopathy in non-COVID conditions, it can be thought of in the management of post-COVID-19 outcomes. Consequently, we propose that while investigating post-COVID-19 patient rehabilitation, homoeopathic management may be included as part of the follow-up route and as much data as possible in the context of homoeopathy should be collected, so that in future, the role of homoeopathy in dealing with it can be better demonstrated.


Psikhiatriya ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 90-99
Author(s):  
N. N. Petrova ◽  
B. G. Butoma ◽  
M. V. Dorofeikova

Background: although the search for biomarkers of mental disorders that is aimed at improving diagnosis, individualizing therapy based on knowledge of pathophysiological processes and preventing the development of mental illness is actively underway for endogenous mental disorders, the study of biological markers in non-endogenous mental disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in particular has received much less attention. Aim: to analyze current state of research dedicated to genetic and biochemical biomarkers that can be used to identify high risk groups and clarify the diagnosis of PTSD. Material and method: keywords “biomarkers”, “post-traumatic stress disorder”, “pathogenesis” have been used to fi nd in PubMed articles published in 2010–2020. Conclusion: research methods for elucidating the mechanisms of PTSD are actively developing, however, the identifi cation of specifi c biomarkers (biochemical, molecular, genetic, epigenetic, neuroimaging, psychophysiological) is a complicated task. This complexity is associated with numerous pathogenic mechanisms of PTSD and frequent comorbidity with mental disorders (depression, anxiety) and somatic diseases, as well as lack of specifi city of detected biomarkers.


Psikhiatriya ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 41-49
Author(s):  
A. Yu. Abramov ◽  
E. A. Koshkina ◽  
D. I. Kicha ◽  
A. O. Alekseyenko

Background: the reduction in the premature mortality as a result of non-contagious diseases by way of the improvement measures to be adopted with the purpose of prevention and treatment of the substance abuse and general health care activities were outlined by the United Nations Organization as the primary objectives as far back as 2015 in order to work towards sustainable development (the objective № 3 “Promotion of healthy lifestyle and furtherance of wellbeing of individuals of all ages” in 2030 perspective). There is a high risks for the Russian Federation of transnational drugs expansion developing [1]. Concurrently, in order to build a national dependence prevention system, Decree № 581н as of 06.10.2014 “On the Preventive Medical Screening to be made at educational establishments” was issued by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Purpose: the research was supposed to focus on Preventive Medical Screening as a measure of prevention of illegal usage of substances and mental disorders among minor students and on the optimization of such preventive medical screening. Materials and methods: the fi ndings are based on the posthoc analysis of the data of the Federal statistical survey form and of the research and information reports (n = 491 280 students). The results: the fi ndings of the preventive medical screening made across the Russian Federation and in Moscow over the years 2016–2018 show the increase of minor students involved into such preventive medical screening, as well as the decrease of those who might use psychoactive drugs. The same fi ndings show that the majority of the illegal drug users were students of secondary vocational schools. The fi ndings can be called a trend across the Russian Federation and in Moscow. Conclusions: non-medical usage of substances among minor students can be a serious threat to the mental health of the youth. There are suggestions for improvement prevention of mental disorders among students at the results of the research. These include methodology of Brief Motivational Consulting at a time of preventive medical screening and the ways of increase effectivity toxicology screening in different educational organizations offering to add in preventive medical screening cotinine (it’s metabolite of nicotine) screening for students of primary school; it’s have to systematically update and expand types of screening tools for substances in preventive medical screening in all educations organizations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Long Sun ◽  
Yunshu Zhang ◽  
Lijun Cui ◽  
Jianfeng Li ◽  
Lin Li ◽  
...  

Background: The prevalence of mental disorders is an important topic, which has been reported in different countries in the world. In China, some studies were also conducted to get the prevalence of mental disorders at the national level and in some metropolitan cities. However, the prevalence of mental disorders in Chinese underdeveloped provinces has not been reported internationally in recent decades. Due to the discrepancy in the social-economic development of different Chinese provinces, we also have reasons to believe the different prevalence of mental disorders between underdeveloped provinces and other provinces.Method: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among community residents aged 18 years and older in Hebei province, China. We screened 20,884 community residents in this study, and a Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) Axis I disorders was used to make the diagnoses of mental disorders.Results: The weighted lifetime prevalence of mental disorders was 15.87% (95% CI 15.38–16.38%), and the 1-month prevalence was 10.79% (95% CI 10.37–11.22%). Anxiety disorder ranked first in the classification of mental disorders for both lifetime (6.56%) and 1-month prevalence (6.25%). The weighted lifetime and 1-month region–gender–age-specific prevalence of mental disorders was also analyzed in this study.Conclusions: Mental disorders have been an important issue in Chinese economically underdeveloped regions, and the prevalence was at a high level compared with the results in the 2000s. There are several serious challenges in the work of Chinese mental disorders, which should be paid more attention to.


Psikhiatriya ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 15-21
Author(s):  
S. N. Vasilieva ◽  
G. G. Simutkin ◽  
E. D. Schastnyy ◽  
E. V. Lebedeva ◽  
N. A. Bokhan

Failure to diagnose bipolar disorder (BD) in time leads to an increase in suicide risk, worse prognosis of the disease, and an increase in the socioeconomic burden. Aim: to assess the incidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) and other mental and behavioral disorders, as well as the sequence of formation of this multimorbidity. Patients and methods: in the Affective States Department of the Mental Health Research Institute TNRMC, 121 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder were selected for the study group according to the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. The predominance of women in the study group was revealed (n = 83; 68.6%; p < 0.01). Median age of male patients was 36 [30; 54] years, for females — 47 [34; 55] years. Results: data were obtained on a high level of comorbidity in the study group: in 46.3% of patients, BD was combined with another mental disorder. It was found that personality disorders as a comorbid disorder in type I bipolar disorder are less common than in type II bipolar disorder. Gender differences were found in the incidence of anxiety-phobic spectrum and substance use disorders in bipolar disorder. The features of the chronology of the development of bipolar disorder and associated mental disorders have been revealed. Conclusion: in the case of bipolar disorder, there is a high likelihood of comorbidity with other mental disorders. Certain patterns in the chronology of the formation of comorbid relationships between BD and concomitant mental and behavioral disorders were revealed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1352
Author(s):  
Gianluca Pandolfo ◽  
Fiammetta Iannuzzo ◽  
Giovanni Genovese ◽  
Antonio Bruno ◽  
Giovanni Pioggia ◽  
...  

Amyloid precursor protein and its derivates represent a central factor in the process of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since mental illnesses share with AD cognitive impairment, amyloid indicators have been used to explore the unknown pathophysiologic mechanisms underlining psychiatric illness. This work aims to compare the role of amyloid markers, together with tau proteins, among various mental disorders evaluating the possible role of altered amyloid metabolism in the onset and in the course of psychiatric diseases, considering the relationship with cognitive impairment in dementia. This review includes articles written in English, published between 1 January 2011 and 31 January 2021, which evaluated amyloid and tau proteins in psychiatric patients. After screening, 31 studies were included in the review. Results suggest that amyloid metabolism is altered in major psychiatric disorders and that it could be a marker of cognitive impairment. Nevertheless, the role of amyloid in mental diseases seems to be related to neurodevelopmental alteration as well as neurodegeneration processes, like in AD. The role of amyloid in the pathogenesis of mental disorders is still unknown. Amyloid should not be only considered as a marker of cognitive impairment in mental illness, but also for altered neurodevelopment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ruth Tsigebrhan ◽  
Abebaw Fekadu ◽  
Girmay Medhin ◽  
Charles R. Newton ◽  
Martin J. Prince ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Timely detection and management of comorbid mental disorders in people with epilepsy is essential to improve outcomes. The objective of this study was to measure the performance of primary health care (PHC) workers in identifying comorbid mental disorders in people with epilepsy against a standardised reference diagnosis and a screening instrument in rural Ethiopia. Methods People with active convulsive epilepsy were identified from the community, with confirmatory diagnosis by trained PHC workers. Documented diagnosis of comorbid mental disorders by PHC workers was extracted from clinical records. The standardized reference measure for diagnosing mental disorders was the Operational Criteria for Research (OPCRIT plus) administered by psychiatric nurses. The mental disorder screening scale (Self-Reporting Questionnaire; SRQ-20), was administered by lay data collectors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PHC worker diagnosis against the reference standard diagnosis was calculated. Logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with misdiagnosis of comorbid mental disorder by PHC workers. Results A total of 237 people with epilepsy were evaluated. The prevalence of mental disorders with standardised reference diagnosis was 13.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.6, 18.2%) and by PHC workers was 6.3% (95%CI 3.2, 9.4%). The prevalence of common mental disorder using SRQ-20 at optimum cut-off point (9 or above) was 41.5% (95% CI 35.2, 47.8%). The sensitivity and specificity of PHC workers diagnosis was 21.1 and 96.1%, respectively, compared to the standardised reference diagnosis. In those diagnosed with comorbid mental disorders by PHC workers, only 6 (40%) had SRQ-20 score of 9 or above. When a combination of both diagnostic methods (SRQ-20 score ≥ 9 and PHC diagnosis of depression) was compared with the standardised reference diagnosis of depression, sensitivity increased to 78.9% (95% (CI) 73.4, 84.4%) with specificity of 59.7% (95% CI 53.2, 66.2%). Only older age was significantly associated with misdiagnosis of comorbid mental disorders by PHC (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.02 to 1.11). Conclusion Routine detection of co-morbid mental disorder in people with epilepsy was very low. Combining clinical judgement with use of a screening scale holds promise but needs further evaluation.


Psikhiatriya ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 100-112
Author(s):  
N. Yu. Pyatnitskiy

The origin of the term and notion of “coenaesthesis” of German-speaking medical school was analyzed. Whereas in Germany the term “Coenaesthesis” was presumably fi rst used by J. Reil’s pupil Ch.F. Huebner (1794) in his written in Latin dissertation and the concept that considered the changes in “general feeling” as a ground for some psychiatric disorders was elaborated by J. Reil (1799, 1805), in Russia the similar ideas were expressed by A.F. Solnzev (1825) in his also written in Latin dissertation as D.D. Fedotov and V.G. Ostroglazov indicate. It may be assumed that the Scotch doctor A. Crichton (Alexander Kreiton in Russian transcription) contributed to the propagation of the concept of “Coenaesthesis” from Germany to Russia, due to his account of German concept of “General feeling” in his “Inquiry into the nature and origin of mental derangement” (1798) and succeeding fi fteen years work in Russia. In German-speaking psychiatry the Reil’s concept of “Coenaesthesis” was farther developed by Austrian doctor and psychiatrist E. von Feuchtersleben (1845), who underlined its meaning not only in hypochondrial but also in hysterical disorders and actively used the term “Coenaesthesis” along with the German term “general feeling”; the concept of general feeling is also refl ected in the famous W. Griesinger’s “Pathology and therapy of mental diseases”. In connection with the following separation from general feeling the muscular, temperature and pressure feelings its notion got narrowed as also the circle of mental disorders that was considered as determined by the different changes in general feeling. That is noticeable in German-speaking psychiatry in the concepts of R. von Kraft-Ebing and E. Kraepelin; while H. Schuele did not use the notion of general feeling at all. In Russia A.F. Solnzev’s concept of Coenaesthesis was for a long time forgotten, but in France in the second half of the XIXth century psychologist and philosopher Th. Ribot opened “cenesthesie” anew. In anglo-saxon psychiatry the disorders of general feeling were never considered as a special psychopathological syndrome (with the exception of its presentation by A. Crichton).


Psikhiatriya ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 113-123
Author(s):  
N. M. Mikhaylova ◽  
V. G. Kaleda ◽  
T. P. Klyushnik ◽  
N. V. Zvereva ◽  
I. F. Roshchina ◽  
...  

The aim of the paper was to provide an overview of the reports presented at the congress on the main problems of clinical and biological psychiatry. Discussion and conclusion: A representative forum of domestic psychiatrists and narcologists, psychotherapists and psychologists, organizers of psychiatric care and the leading scientists in the fi eld of clinical and biological psychiatry was held together with the Regional Congress of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA). The thematic diversity of the reports corresponded to the main problem, refl ected in the title of the congress. The opportunity to review and discuss achievements in scientifi c and practical activities of colleagues and to present their own data was the basis for summing up and identifying the prospects for protecting the mental health of the population at the current level of knowledge and using effective technologies.


2021 ◽  

Mental Health, Diabetes and Endocrinology examines the main areas of clinical overlap between endocrinology and mental health to address key clinical conundrums. Drawing on the most recent developments from literature and clinical practice, this book gives specific attention to the main areas where clinical conundrums and treatment challenges arise across endocrinology, psychiatry, psychology and primary care. Common challenges in this area include depression which can impact on the person's ability to self-care and to adhere to treatment with consequences for their morbidity and mortality; 'diabulaemia' associated with high mortality rates; obesity and associated mental disorders; cognitive impairment and mental capacity; anti-psychotic medications and their endocrine sequelae; and specific setting-related considerations. Mental Health, Diabetes and Endocrinology is a useful resource for the overlapping conditions across these specialities, and provides clinically-focussed evidence-based resources for all health care professionals who encounter these issues.


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