Nitrogen Fertilizer
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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 351-364
Jin-wen HUANG ◽  
Jia-yi WU ◽  
Hong-fei CHEN ◽  
Zhi-xing ZHANG ◽  
Chang-xun FANG ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 278 ◽  
pp. 108430
Olusegun Idowu ◽  
Yuanzheng Wang ◽  
Koki Homma ◽  
Tetsuya Nakazaki ◽  
Zhengjin Xu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 223-230
Idrissa Diédhiou ◽  
Pedro Pérez Martínez ◽  
Emmanuel Martínez Castro ◽  
Wilson Geobel Ceiro-Catasú

Maize is the most important crop in Mexico, being central to the diets of consumers, particularly smallholders, and an undetermined amount is allocated as straw, green fodder, and, to a lesser extent, as silage for animal feed. Nitrogen fertilizer is considered one of the most important factors affecting growth, grain yield, and maize biomass production. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on maize production. A randomized complete block experimental design consisted of three treatments of nitrogen (180, 160, and 80 kg/ha) with three replications and morphological (plant height, stem thickness, and rate of growth), yield, and yield components (cob weight, length, thickness, number of rows per cob, and plant biomass) variables were used. The results suggest that the increase in nitrogen levels increases all the parameters of maize production. However, at 160 kg/ha, the greatest production of fodder was recorded with 5.99 tons/ha, superior to the one reported at 180 kg/ha, which was 5.47 tons/ha. We conclude that the maize fodder production can be optimized with the use of 160 kg/ha in the conditions of the altiplano of San Luis Potosí (Mexico).

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shijie Shi ◽  
Enting Wang ◽  
Chengxuan Li ◽  
Mingli Cai ◽  
Bo Cheng ◽  

Taste quality of rice is the key to its value. However, it is greatly affected by rice types and the environment. It is a complex but necessary factor to accurately evaluate the taste quality of various types of rice in different environments. In this study, 7 different types of rice with different taste values were used as materials, and 12 nitrogen fertilizer treatments were applied to obtain 84 different rice taste values. We used protein content, amylose content, and RVA to evaluate changes in the taste value of rice. Rice with high taste value tended to have higher amylose content, peak viscosity, hold viscosity, final viscosity, and breakdown, as well as lower protein content, pasting temperature, and peak time. Protein and amylose contents affected the taste value of rice by affecting the RVA profiles except for setback. For high and low taste-value rice types, protein content could explain 66.8 and 42.9% of the variation in taste value, respectively. In the case of medium taste-value type, protein content was not enough to evaluate the taste quality of rice. Stickiness could explain 59.6% of the variation in taste value. When the protein content of rice was less than 6.61% or greater than 9.34%, it could be used to reflect the taste quality of rice. When the protein content was in between the two, protein content was not enough to reflect the taste quality of rice. Our results suggested that protein content could better reflect the taste quality change for rice, which provided a theoretical and technical basis for the accurate evaluation of the taste value of various types of rice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
David Consiglio

Abstract For centuries, farmers have needed fertilizers rich in nitrogen to increase crop yields. This need led to one of the most unusual wars in history: a war over fossilized bird droppings. Twentieth century chemists solved the problem of mass-producing nitrogen fertilizer, but their solution required enormous amounts of energy. Twenty-first century chemists now face the challenge of producing nitrogen fertilizer without the need for energy provided by fossil fuels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 820
Chenming Lin ◽  
Sen Dou ◽  
Mahmoud Gamal Mohamed Abd El-Rahim ◽  
Xin Liu ◽  
Dong Wu ◽  

Increasing nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency has become an environmental and economic demand in order to minimize losses of nitrogen and maximize the output from nitrogen added. The application of organic amendments with N fertilizers could be proposed as an important economic and environmental practice for improving N fertilizer use. A two-year field experiment was carried out using the 15N tracer technique to study the impact of corn straw and woody peat application on uptake and utilization of N fertilizer by maize plant. Three treatments were set up: CK (15N labeled urea alone), CS (15N labeled urea + crushed corn straw) and WP (15N labeled urea+ crushed woody peat). The results showed that, as compared to CK, both straw and peat treatments led to (i) an increase in yield of maize, 15N urea utilization rate, and residual 15N urea remained in soil by 11.20% and 19.47%, 18.62% and 58.99%, 41.77% and 59.45%, respectively, but (ii) a decrease in the total loss rate by 6.21% and 16.83% (p < 0.05), respectively over the two seasons. Moreover, the significantly highest effect was recorded with woody peat application rather than that with corn straw. Our study suggests that corn straw and woody peat can be used as organic fertilizers to increase maize yields, promote nitrogen fertilizer balance sheet, reduce the leaching of N fertilizer into the subsurface soil layer, and facilitate the further absorption and utilization of soil residual nitrogen. Therefore, the application of humified organic material play a crucial role in N utilization efficiency enhancement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Xiucheng He ◽  
Huizhen Qiu ◽  
Kuizhong Xie ◽  
Yucai Wang ◽  
Juan Hu ◽  

AbstractIsatis indigotica planting is the backbone of the medicinal industry in Hexi Oasis, Gansu. In order to solve the problems insufficient water resources and excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer in this area, this paper explored the irrigation and nitrogen levels that can meet the multiple goals of Isatis indigotica. The two-factor split-plot field experiment (2018‒2019) was conducted in Minle County, Gansu Province, China, which contains 9 treatments. There were three levels of irrigation water: W1(low), W2(medium), and W3(high). The soil moisture contents were 60–70%, 70–80%, and 80–90% of the field water-holding capacity, respectively. The nitrogen application rate was classified into three levels, N1(low), N2(medium) and N3(high), which were 150, 200 and 250 kg N/ha, respectively. The standard local irrigation water amount and nitrogen application rate corresponded to W3N3. The results showed that the yield of Isatis indigotica increased first and then decreased with the increase of irrigation amount and nitrogen application rate, the yield of W2N2 is 12.2–17.1% higher than that of W1N1, the yield of W3N3 was 12.1–17.5% lower than that of W2N2. Saving water and reducing nitrogen can improve the quality of Isatis indigotica, compared with W3N3, the indigo, indirubin, (R,S)-epigoitrin and polysaccharides of W2N2 increased by 4.5–5.9%, 2.7–3.1%, 5.2–6.0%, and 1.8–2.1%, respectively. With the increase of nitrogen application rate, the water use efficiency (WUE) first increased and then decreased, as the irrigation volume increases, WUE decreases. Compared with W3N3, the WUE of W2N2 increased by 24.3–27.2%. With the increase of water input, the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency (NUE) first increased and then decreased, as the nitrogen application rate increases, NUE decreases. Compared with W3N3, the NUE of W2W2 increased by 31.8–34.5%. Therefore, W2N2 can improve quality and increase water and nitrogen utilization efficiency on the basis of ensuring yield.

Crop Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Ross C Braun ◽  
Emily T Braithwaite ◽  
Alexander Robert Kowalewski ◽  
Eric Watkins ◽  
Andrew B. Hollman ◽  

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Alaa AL Aasmi ◽  
Jiuhao Li ◽  
Yousef Alhaj Hamoud ◽  
Yubin Lan ◽  
Kelvin Edom Alordzinu ◽  

The efficient use of water and fertilizer is vital for optimizing plant growth and yield in rice production. To achieve sustainable rice production and resource management, the ways in which applied water and nitrogen affect the root and shoot morpho-physiology, as well as yield, must be understood. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of slow-release nitrogen fertilizer (sulfur-coated urea) application at three levels (light nitrogen (NL), medium nitrogen (NM), and heavy nitrogen (NH)) on the growth, yield, and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of rice grown under three water regimes (wetting and soil saturation (WSS), wetting and moderate drying (WMD) and wetting and severe drying (WSD)). The results revealed that differences in water regimes and fertilizer rates led to significant differences in the roots, shoots, yield, and NUE of rice. Increasing the N dosage by 5% enhanced the root and biomass production by 16% in comparison with that of the other groups. The NH×WSS treatment produced the greatest root length, weight, density, active absorption, and oxidation. However, the integration of WSS × NL generated the maximum value of nitrogen apparent recovery efficiency (63.1% to 67.6%) and the greatest value of nitrogen partial factor productivity (39.9 g g−1 to 41.13 g g−1). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that plants grown under high and medium nitrogen fertilizer rates with WSS had improved leaf mesophyll structure with normal starch grains, clear cell walls, and well-developed chloroplasts with tidy and well-arranged thylakoids. These results show that TEM images are useful for characterizing the nitrogen and water status of leaves in the sub-micrometer range and providing specific information regarding the leaf microstructure. The findings of this study suggest that the application of NH×WSS can produce improvements in growth traits and increase rice yield; however, the NL×WSS treatment led to greater NUE, and the authors recommend its usage in rice agriculture.

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