water productivity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 261 ◽  
pp. 107373
Abdur Rahim Safi ◽  
Poolad Karimi ◽  
Marloes Mul ◽  
Abebe Chukalla ◽  
Charlotte de Fraiture

2022 ◽  
Vol 263 ◽  
pp. 107459
Ali Akbarzadeh ◽  
Ali Shahnazari ◽  
Mirkhalegh Ziatabar Ahmadi ◽  
Mohammad Akbarzadeh

2022 ◽  
Vol 260 ◽  
pp. 107291
Zengzhen Song ◽  
Yuxing Peng ◽  
Zizhong Li ◽  
Shuai Zhang ◽  
Xiaotong Liu ◽  

Ramesh Kumar ◽  
R.S. Yadav ◽  
Amit Kumawat ◽  
Vinay Nangia ◽  
N.D. Yadava ◽  

Background: Freshwater in sufficient quantity and adequate quality is a prerequisite for human societies and natural ecosystems. To adequately feed 9.3 billion people in 2050, consumptive water use (i.e. transpired water) by all food and fodder crops needs to increase from its present estimated level of 7000 km3/year to 12,586 km3/year. However, fresh water resources are increasingly getting scarce because of increased competition among a multitude of users. Getting agriculture to perform with progressively smaller allocation of renewable water resources will remain a challenge on global scale. To meet the challenge there is an urgent need to improve the crop water productivity to ensure the sustainability of agriculture. Methods: An experiment was carried out at village Menawali, Hanumangarh, Rajasthan during both kharif and rabi seasons to assess productivity, economics, N-uptake and water use of different crops. An area of 187 ha comprising 25 farmers irrigated by common irrigation channels were selected to collect the information. The information required i.e. soil, crop management, growth, phonological, yields, water balance, N-uptake and water use efficiency of each crops were collected from 15 farmers. Bt-cotton and clusterbean of kharif and wheat and Indian mustard in rabi were prominent crops, cotton-wheat, cotton-mustard, clusterbean-wheat and clusterbean-mustard were major cropping sequences of the study region. Result: In kharif season, Bt-cotton gave higher economic yields than clusterbean and amongst rabi season crops, economic yields of wheat and mustard were 4255, 1778 kg/ha, respectively. The economic yield of cropping sequences varied from 3741-6514 kg/ha and were higher for cotton-wheat (6218 kg/ha), intermediate for clusterbean-wheat (5785 kg/ha) and lower for cotton-mustard (3741 kg/ha) and clusterbean-mustard (3308 kg/ha). The cotton-wheat (₹1181.2 mm) sequence had highest water use. Clusterbean-wheat cropping system recorded highest water productivity (16.5 kg/ha mm) followed by clusterbean-mustard (14.9 kg/ha mm). The clusterbean-mustard (₹456/ha mm) cropping sequence was most profitable and fetched highest net return followed by clusterbean-wheat (₹383/ha mm).

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Abdelaziz M. Okasha ◽  
Eman M. Eldib ◽  
Adel H. Elmetwalli ◽  
Aitazaz Ahsan Farooque ◽  
Zaher Mundher Yaseen ◽  

Egypt has limited agricultural land, associated with the scarcity of irrigation water and rapid population growth. Hydroponic farming, seawater desalination and magnetic treatment are among the practical solutions for sustaining rapid population growth. In this regard, the main objective of the present research study was to design and construct a hierarchical engineering unit as a hydroponic farming system (soilless) to produce an iceberg lettuce crop using magnetically treated saline water. The treatments included four types of irrigation water: common irrigation water (IW1) with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 0.96 dS/m as a control treatment, magnetically treated common irrigation water (IW2) with an EC of 0.96 dS/m, saline water (IW3) with an EC of 4.56 dS/m and magnetically treated saline water (IW4) with an EC of 4.56 dS/m; three depletion ratios (DR) of field capacity (DR0 = 50%, DR1 = 60% and DR2 = 70%) and three slopes of hydroponic pipes (S1 = 0.0%, S2 = 0.025% and S3 = 0.075%). The results revealed that seawater contributed 7.15% to produce iceberg lettuce in the hydroponic system. The geometric parameter, the slope of the pipes, influenced the obtained luminous intensity by an average increase of 21% and 71% for S2 and S3, respectively, compared with the zero slope (horizontal pipes). Magnetization of irrigation water increased the total soluble solids (TSS) and enhanced the fresh weight and water productivity of both iceberg lettuce varieties used. The maximum percentages of TSS were 5.20% and 5.10% for lemur and iceberg 077, respectively, for the combination IW4DR2S2. The highest values of fresh weight and water productivity of 3.10 kg/m and 39.15 kg/m3 were recorded with the combinations IW3DR2S3 and IW4DR1S3, respectively, for lemur and iceberg lettuce. The percentages of these increases were 109.46% and 97.78%, respectively, when compared with the combination IW1DR0S1. The highest values of iceberg lettuce 077 fresh weight and water productivity were 2.93 kg/m and 36.15 kg/m3, respectively, which were recorded with the combination IW4DR1S3. The percentages of these increases were 112.32% and 120.56%, respectively, when compared with IW1DR0S1 (the control treatment).

N. Swapna ◽  
Firdouz Shahana ◽  
T. Prabhakar Reddy ◽  
G. Praveen Kumar ◽  
M. Venkataiah

Background: With the unparalleled growth in area and production, soybean has established itself as a leading oilseed crop of India. The crop is mainly grown under rainfed conditions, and the distribution of rainfall plays an important role in yield realization. The changed landform management with broad-bed furrow seed drill is gaining popularity as the system helps in in situ moisture conservation and draining out excess rainwater. A field experiment was conducted at Regional Sugarcane and Rice Research Station, Rudrur. The yield advantage by adoption of broad-bed and furrow (BBF) method over flat bed was 7.06%. Seed rate of 50 kg ha-1 recorded significantly higher mean seed yield of 2804 kg ha-1 over 75, 38, 20 kg ha-1. The total benefit from adoption of BBF method recorded net returns of ₹ 53,233 ha-1 and B:C ratio of 2.58 over flatbed planting. Seed rate of 50 kg seed ha-1 recorded the highest net returns and B:C ratio this was followed by 75 kg ha-1 seed rate. Methods: A field experiment was conducted for three years (2017-19) at Regional Sugarcane and Rice Research Station, Rudrur, situated at an altitude of 286.3 m above mean sea level at 18°49’41" N latitude and 78°56’ 45" E longitude. Indeterminate variety of soybean ASB 22 was selected. The experimental plots (6m × 6m= 36m2) were laid out with split plot design with three replications. Main plot treatments were methods of planting: M1- Flat bed, M2- Broad bed and Furrow, and sub plot treatments were : seed rates; S1- 75 kg ha-1 (30 × 10 cm), S2- 50 kg ha-1 (30 × 15 cm), S3- 38 kg ha-1 (30 × 20 cm), S4- 20 kg ha-1 (30 × 30 cm). Result: The grain yields, water productivity, harvest index and economics of soybeans under BBF method of planting (in-situ water conservation) and flatbed practices were studied. BBF method increased seasonal soil water storage by 5.37%, 5.78% and 6.20% respectively compared with flatbed planting for 2017, 2018 and 2019 respectively. Seed rate of 50 kg ha-1 recorded significantly higher mean seed yield of 2804 kg ha-1 over 75, 38, 20 kg ha-1. The yield advantage by adopting seed rate of 50 kg ha-1 was 16.08%, 56.02% and 67.6% over 75, 38 and 20 kg ha-1 respectively. The total benefit from adoption of BBF method recorded net returns of ₹ 53,233 ha-1 and B:C ratio of 2.58 over flatbed planting. Seed rate of 50 kg ha-1 recorded the highest net returns and B:C ratio this was followed by 75 kg ha-1. Broad bed and furrow method of planting and optimum seed rate in soybean will enhance the soybean productivity.

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