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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Xiucheng He ◽  
Huizhen Qiu ◽  
Kuizhong Xie ◽  
Yucai Wang ◽  
Juan Hu ◽  

AbstractIsatis indigotica planting is the backbone of the medicinal industry in Hexi Oasis, Gansu. In order to solve the problems insufficient water resources and excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer in this area, this paper explored the irrigation and nitrogen levels that can meet the multiple goals of Isatis indigotica. The two-factor split-plot field experiment (2018‒2019) was conducted in Minle County, Gansu Province, China, which contains 9 treatments. There were three levels of irrigation water: W1(low), W2(medium), and W3(high). The soil moisture contents were 60–70%, 70–80%, and 80–90% of the field water-holding capacity, respectively. The nitrogen application rate was classified into three levels, N1(low), N2(medium) and N3(high), which were 150, 200 and 250 kg N/ha, respectively. The standard local irrigation water amount and nitrogen application rate corresponded to W3N3. The results showed that the yield of Isatis indigotica increased first and then decreased with the increase of irrigation amount and nitrogen application rate, the yield of W2N2 is 12.2–17.1% higher than that of W1N1, the yield of W3N3 was 12.1–17.5% lower than that of W2N2. Saving water and reducing nitrogen can improve the quality of Isatis indigotica, compared with W3N3, the indigo, indirubin, (R,S)-epigoitrin and polysaccharides of W2N2 increased by 4.5–5.9%, 2.7–3.1%, 5.2–6.0%, and 1.8–2.1%, respectively. With the increase of nitrogen application rate, the water use efficiency (WUE) first increased and then decreased, as the irrigation volume increases, WUE decreases. Compared with W3N3, the WUE of W2N2 increased by 24.3–27.2%. With the increase of water input, the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency (NUE) first increased and then decreased, as the nitrogen application rate increases, NUE decreases. Compared with W3N3, the NUE of W2W2 increased by 31.8–34.5%. Therefore, W2N2 can improve quality and increase water and nitrogen utilization efficiency on the basis of ensuring yield.

Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 45
Yang Gao ◽  
Yueping Liang ◽  
Yuanyuan Fu ◽  
Zhuanyun Si ◽  
Abdoul Kader Mounkaila Hamani

Plant physiological responses to various stresses are characterized by interaction and coupling, while the intrinsic mechanism remains unclear. The effects of intraspecific competition on plant growth, stomatal opening, and hormone concentrations were investigated with three tomato genotypes (WT-wild type, Ailsa Craig; FL-a abscisic acid (ABA) deficient mutant, flacca; NR-a partially ethylene-insensitive genotype) under two water regimes (full irrigation, irrigation amount = daily transpiration; deficit irrigation, 60% of irrigation amount in full irrigation) in this study. Three kinds of competitions were designed, i.e., root and canopy competition, non-root competition, and non-canopy competition, respectively. Intraspecific competition reduced plant leaf area and stomatal conductance (gs) of wild-type tomato, accompanied by ABA accumulation and ethylene evolution. Intraspecific competition-induced decrease in gs was absent in FL and NR, indicating ABA and ethylene involved in plant response to intraspecific competition. As soil water becomes dry, the competition decreased gs by elevating ABA and ethylene accumulations. Under severe drought, the competition-induced decline in gs was covered by the severe drought-induced decrease in gs, as hydraulic signals most probably dominate. The absence of canopy competition insignificantly influenced plant stomatal opening of well-watered tomato, as canopy separation minimized the plant neighbor sensing by ethylene and other signals. Whereas under water deficit condition, the absence of canopy competition significantly reduced ABA accumulation in roots and then stomatal conductance, indicating the belowground neighbor detection signals maybe enhanced by soil drought. The absence of root competition increased ethylene evolution, confirming the importance of ethylene in neighbor detection and plant response to environmental stress.

2021 ◽  
Sherif A. Aboelgoud ◽  
Ibrahim S. M. Mosaad ◽  
Hesham A. Awad

Abstract The teosinte plant is one of the most important fodder crops that is affected by drought and nitrogen supply, and therefore the optimal supply of N- fertilization may be affected by the amount of irrigation water added to teosinte plants to obtain an economic crop. Two field experiments were done to study the effect of irrigation amount at three levels (100%, 80% and 120%) and nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 90 and 120 kg N fed-1) (Feddan = 4200 m2) on the yield productivity of teosinte and determined the optimal and economic optimal N rate as affected by irrigation amount levels, and water relations. The results showed that the highest values of the fresh and dry weight of cuts, as well as plant height and stem diameter, were obtained when applying the full irrigation rate with full irrigation and 120 kg N fed-1. The results also showed that a 20% decrease in the irrigation rate led to a deterioration in the values of those parameters. Although the results showed that the full irrigation amount more saved water at two seasons under various levels of nitrogen. Moreover, all water relationships gave the best mean values for actual evapotranspiration, water utilization and use efficiencies also, higher application efficiency values at full irrigation and 120 kg N-levels than the other treatments. Also, the results showed that the economical yield of teosinte fresh cuts when using 211.01 kg N fed-1 with 120% of the recommended irrigation rate was higher when using 148.22 kg N fed-1 with the recommended irrigation rate. Therefore, we recommend using 211.01 kg N fed-1 to get an optimum economic yield of teosinte fresh cuts, especially in saline soil, with 120% of the recommended irrigation rate.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 3403
Hassan M. Abd El Baki ◽  
Haruyuki Fujimaki

Advancement of modern technologies has given numerical simulations a crucial role to effectively manage irrigation. A new numerical scheme to determine irrigation depths was incorporated into WASH 2D, which is a numerical simulation model of crop response to irrigation. Based on two predicted points of cumulative transpiration—water price and quantitative weather forecast—the scheme can optimize an irrigation depth in which net income is maximized. A field experiment was carried out at the Arid Land Research Center, Tottori, Japan, in 2019, to evaluate the effectiveness of the scheme on net income and crop production compared to a tensiometer-based automated irrigation system. Sweetcorn (Zea mays L., Amaenbou 86) was grown in three water balance lysimeters per each treatment, filled with sandy soil. The scheme could achieve a 4% higher net income, due to a 7% increase in green fodder yield, and an 11% reduction in irrigation amount, compared with the automated irrigation method. These results indicate that the numerical scheme, in combination with quantitative weather forecasts, can be a useful tool to determine irrigation depths, maximize net incomes which are farmers’ targets, and avoid large investments that are required for the automated irrigation system.

Chowdhury Nazmul Haque ◽  
Monirul Haque ◽  
Hiralal Jana ◽  
Debabrata Basu ◽  
Sabyasachi Karak

Groundwater is the biggest freshwater reservoir in the world. More than 95% of the unfrozen water comes from groundwater. Factors responsible for groundwater consumption by rice growers have been included in the study. For the study, Purba Barddhaman district was selected purposively considering the pattern of agriculture and extent groundwater use in the state. One community development block from the district has selected based on crop diversity, type of irrigation, amount of water extraction for irrigation purposes. From the selected block a big parcel of cultivating land (Math) were again selected randomly keeping the consideration of homogeneity in lad type, soil type, type of crops, variety and seasons. Farmers’ knowledge level, farmers’ attitude towards irrigation, economic motivation, improved water extraction mechanism and method of irrigation are the major contributing factors in predicting the amount of groundwater consumption when crop and land situation are constant.

Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1167
Hui Cao ◽  
Hongbo Wang ◽  
Yong Li ◽  
Abdoul Kader Mounkaila Hamani ◽  
Nan Zhang ◽  

Crop coefficients are critical to developing irrigation scheduling and improving agricultural water management in farmland ecosystems. Interest in dwarf cultivation with high density (DCHD) for apple production increases in Aksu oasis, southern Xinjiang. The lack of micro-irrigation scheduling limits apple yield and water productivity of the DCHD-cultivated orchard. A two-year experiment with the DCHD-cultivated apple (Malus × domestica ‘Royal Gala’) orchard was conducted to determine crop coefficients and evapotranspiration (ETa) with the SIMDualKc model, and to investigate apple yield and water productivity (WP) in response to different irrigation scheduling. The five levels of irrigation rate were designed as W1 of 13.5 mm, W2 of 18.0 mm, W3 of 22.5 mm, W4 of 27.0 mm, and W5 of 31.5 mm. The mean value of basal crop coefficient (Kcb) at the initial-, mid-, and late-season was 1.00, 1.30, and 0.89, respectively. The Kc-local (ETa/ET0) range for apple orchard with DCHD was 1.11–1.20, 1.33–1.43, and 1.09–1.22 at the initial, middle, and late season, respectively. ETa of apple orchard in this study ranged between 415.55–989.71 mm, and soil evaporation accounted for 13.85–29.97% of ETa. Relationships between total irrigation amount and apple yield and WP were developed, and W3 was suggested as an optimum irrigation schedule with an average apple yield of 30,540.8 kg/ha and WP of 4.45 kg/m3 in 2019–2020. The results have implications in developing irrigation schedules and improving water management for apple production in arid regions.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 3078
Xuelian Peng ◽  
Xiaotao Hu ◽  
Dianyu Chen ◽  
Zhenjiang Zhou ◽  
Yinyin Guo ◽  

Understanding variations in sap flow rates and the environmental factors that influence sap flow is important for exploring grape water consumption patterns and developing reasonable greenhouse irrigation schedules. Three irrigation levels were established in this study: adequate irrigation (W1), moderate deficit irrigation (W2) and deficit irrigation (W3). Grape sap flow estimation models were constructed using partial least squares (PLS) and random forest (RF) algorithms, and the simulation accuracy and stability of these models were evaluated. The results showed that the daily mean sap flow rates in the W2 and W3 treatments were 14.65 and 46.94% lower, respectively, than those in the W1 treatment, indicating that the average daily sap flow rate increased gradually with an increase in the irrigation amount within a certain range. Based on model error and uncertainty analyses, the RF model had better simulation results in the different grape growth stages than the PLS model did. The coefficient of determination and Willmott’s index of agreement for RF model exceeded 0.78 and 0.90, respectively, and this model had smaller root mean square error and d-factor (evaluation index of model uncertainty) values than the PLS model did, indicating that the RF model had higher prediction accuracy and was more stable. The relative importance of the model predictors was determined. Moreover, the RF model more comprehensively reflected the influence of meteorological factors and the moisture content in different soil layers on the sap flow rate than the PLS model did. In summary, the RF model accurately simulated sap flow rates, which is important for greenhouse grape irrigation.

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