social behaviour
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2022 ◽  
Ornelas Marques

Abstract Studies dealing with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the COVID-19 disease have concentrated on the study of the virus and the disease themselves, but a knowledge of the causes responsible for the pandemic is still lacking. Crucial for effective decision making and control of the pandemic is a thorough and critical analysis of data regarding COVID-19, which shows an intimate relation between the number of cases/deaths and the consumption of alcohol. Ranked top 30 countries in COVID-19 cases/deaths and alcohol consumption coincide, with only a few exceptions. This coincidence is not fortuitous nor surprising, because excessive alcohol consumption is known to have pernicious effects on social behaviour, i.e. lead to deviant and irresponsible behaviour, which greatly promotes transmission

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
P. Brañas-Garza ◽  
D. Jorrat ◽  
A. Alfonso ◽  
A. M. Espín ◽  
T. García Muñoz ◽  

We report data from an online experiment which allows us to study how generosity changed over a 6-day period during the initial explosive growth of the COVID-19 pandemic in Andalusia, Spain, while the country was under a strict lockdown. Participants ( n = 969) could donate a fraction of a €100 prize to an unknown charity. Our data are particularly rich in the age distribution and we complement them with daily public information about COVID-19-related deaths, infections and hospital admissions. We find correlational evidence that donations decreased in the period under study, particularly among older individuals. Our analysis of the mechanisms behind the detected decrease in generosity suggests that expectations about others' behaviour, perceived mortality risk and (alarming) information play a key—but independent—role for behavioural adaptation. These results indicate that social behaviour is quickly adjusted in response to the pandemic environment, possibly reflecting some form of selective prosociality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (39) ◽  
pp. 114-129
Michalina Pietrek

In Poland, it is possible to observe a lack of comprehensive solutions to the problem related to the co-existence of youth rescue organisations in the system of local security, namely: the solutions which would legalise involvement of such organisations in emergency situations and which would indicate the role that such entities could play in prevention. In the paper presented below, the Author poses the following questions: What are the contemporary challenges and expectations of youth rescue organisations? What activities in the fields of security and rescue could be developed by social rescue organisations to use their potential and to improve the level of security? It is possible to expect that the development of some particular fields of activity will contribute to the improvement in the efficiency of social organisations and the impact they have on the level of local security. It can be achieved by the promotion of pro-social behaviour in the fields of security and rescue among young people, local communities and self-government authorities to form the civil society. In order to meet challenges and expectations of youth rescue organisations, it is necessary to provide young people with broader participation in social organisations, to improve the attractiveness of such entities through systemic and financial support, along with social and education base. To provide a solution to the research problem, the Author has applied the method of a diagnostic survey in the form of expert interviews with people involved into activities undertaken by youth rescue organisations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 85-89
Robin Wagner-Pacifici

This paper responds to Baert, Morgan, and Ushiyama’s article, “Existence theory: Outline for a theory of social behaviour,” by drawing out and examining the paper’s identification of the importance of existential milestones and the dangers of their elusiveness for some leading to a sense of incomplete lives. Alternative perspectives on frustrated existential milestones are proposed via a focus on the relationship between existence and events.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 1336
János Konkoly ◽  
Viktória Kormos ◽  
Balázs Gaszner ◽  
Zoltán Sándor ◽  
Angéla Kecskés ◽  

Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a nonselective cation channel, contributes to several (patho)physiological processes. Smell loss is an early sign in several neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases; therefore, we focused on its role in olfaction and social behaviour with the aim to reveal its potential therapeutic use. The presence of Trpa1 mRNA was studied along the olfactory tract of mice by combined RNAscope in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. The aversive effects of fox and cat odour were examined in parallel with stress hormone levels. In vitro calcium imaging was applied to test if these substances can directly activate TRPA1 receptors. The role of TRPA1 in social behaviour was investigated by comparing Trpa1 wild-type and knockout mice (KO). Trpa1 mRNA was detected in the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, while its expression was weak in the olfactory epithelium. Fox, but not cat odour directly activated TRPA1 channels in TRPA1-overexpressing Chinese Hamster Ovary cell lines. Accordingly, KO animals showed less aversion against fox, but not cat odour. The social interest of KO mice was reduced during social habituation–dishabituation and social interaction, but not during resident–intruder tests. TRPA1 may contribute to odour processing at several points of the olfactory tract and may play an important role in shaping the social behaviour of mice. Thus, TRPA1 may influence the development of certain social disorders, serving as a potential drug target in the future.

Diogenes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
Pantelej Kondratjuk ◽  

Social Philosophy is a discipline that deals with social behaviour and interprets society and its institutions according to ethical values instead of empirical relations. Bearing this in mind, I decided to explore the phenomenon of the crisis regarding the modern ethos of postmodern culture in the context of the history of classical philosophy. I have done so by relating it to new theoretical and epistemological frameworks of social, philosophical ontology on the one hand, and to the attempt to find an appropriate linguistic paradigm though philosophical semantics on the other hand that would have the potential to create an alternative ethical category. The ultimate goal is to show that philosophy becomes philosophy through the human being himself.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Thomas Boysen Anker ◽  
Ross Gordon ◽  
Nadia Zainuddin

Purpose The emerging consumer-dominant logic of marketing captures consumers’ active and primary role in a range of mainstream marketing processes such as branding, product development and sales. However, consumers’ active role in driving pro-social behaviour change has not yet received close attention. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explore consumer dominance in social marketing. The authors propose a definition of consumer-dominant social marketing (CDSM) and explicate five key elements which underpin the phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach This conceptual study offers an analysis informed by exemplars with significant representations of consumer-dominant pro-social behaviours and projects. The methodological approach is characterised as “envisioning conceptualisation”, which is explained in terms of MacInnis’ (2011) framework for conceptual approaches in marketing. Findings As a phenomenon, CDSM operationalises the following elements: power, agency, resources, value and responsibility. The authors demonstrate how these elements are interconnected and define their meaning, significance and implications in the context of social marketing and pro-social behaviour change. The authors also identify this new form of social marketing as existing on a continuum depending on the level of involvement or dominance of the consumer and of social marketers; at one end of this continuum, exclusive CDSM is entirely consumer-driven and does not engage with businesses or organisations, while on the other end, inclusive CDSM encompasses partnership with external stakeholders to achieve pro-social behaviour change. Research limitations/implications The existence of inclusive and exclusive CDSM points towards an intricate power balance between consumers, mainstream social marketers and businesses. While this study identifies and explains this substantial distinction, it is an important task for future research to systematise the relationship and explore the optimal balance between consumer activism and involvement of formalised organisations such as charities and businesses in pro-social behaviour change projects. Practical implications The study provides social marketing professionals with an understanding of the benefits of harnessing consumer empowerment to enhance the impact of social marketing interventions. Originality/value The study makes a theoretical contribution by introducing, defining and explicating consumer dominance as a substantive area of social marketing.

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