transient receptor potential
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 373-380
Xuecheng Sun ◽  
Tao Wang ◽  
Bo Huang ◽  
Gaobo Ruan ◽  
Jun Huang ◽  

Background: Vitiligo, a chronic, autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, caused by the disappearance of epidermal melanocytes, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Although emerging evidence demonstrated that abnormal regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) were associated with the pathogenesis of diseases, the functions of miR-637 in vitiligo remain unclear. Objective: This research was designed to explore the potential roles of miR-637 in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced human primary melanocytes in vitiligo. Methods: Human primary melanocytes were induced by 250 μmol/L H2O2 for 4 h to establish oxidative injury of melanocytes model. Cell viability and apoptosis analyzed by MTT and flow cytometry assay, respectively. The relevance between miR-637 and transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) was checked using TargetScan and dual luciferase reporter gene assay. The expression of miR-637 and TRPM2 was evaluated using qRT-PCR and/or Western blot analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured using specific assay kits. In addition, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were evaluated using Western blot assay. Results: TRPM2 was up-regulated, while miR-637 was down-regulated in H2O2-stimulated human primary melanocytes. TRPM2 directly interacted with miR-637. Up-regulation of miR-637 memorably increased miR-637 level and inhibited TRPM2 expression. Furthermore, miR-637 mimic fortified cell viability, reduced apoptotic cells, enhanced Bcl-2 expression, reduced Bax level, as well as inhibited the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in H2O2-induced melanocytes. Meanwhile, miR-637 mimic obviously suppressed the accumulation of ROS and increased SOD and CAT activity. Nevertheless, all these findings were inverted by TRPM2-plasmid. Likewise, TRPM2-siRNA led to increased cell viability, reduced apoptotic cells, enhanced Bcl-2 expression, reduced Bax level, inhibited Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, inhibited ROS production, but increased SOD and CAT activity in H2O2-induced melanocytes. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that TRPM2 was up-regulated, while miR-637 was down-regulated in injurious melanocytes of vitiligo. Up-regulation of miR-637 relieved oxidative stress-stimulated melanocyte injury via down-regulating TRPM2 expression. Our results provide new insights into the functions of miR-637 in the development of vitiligo, indicating that miR-637 may be a latent target for vitiligo therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Judit Rosta ◽  
Máté Tóth ◽  
Nadine Friedrich ◽  
Péter Sántha ◽  
Gábor Jancsó ◽  

Abstract Background Clinical observations suggest that hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance can be associated with migraine headache. In the present study we examined the effect of insulin on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor-dependent meningeal nociceptor functions in rats. Methods The effects of insulin on the TRPV1 receptor stimulation-induced release of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal afferents and changes in meningeal blood flow were studied. Colocalization of the insulin receptor, the TRPV1 receptor and CGRP was also analyzed in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Results Insulin induced release of CGRP from meningeal afferents and consequent increases in dural blood flow through the activation of TRPV1 receptors of trigeminal afferents. Insulin sensitized both neural and vascular TRPV1 receptors making them more susceptible to the receptor agonist capsaicin. Immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of the insulin receptor with the TRPV1 receptor and CGRP in a significant proportion of trigeminal ganglion neurons. Conclusions Insulin may activate or sensitize meningeal nociceptors that may lead to enhanced headache susceptibility in persons with increased plasma insulin concentration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Niels C. Lory ◽  
Mikolaj Nawrocki ◽  
Martina Corazza ◽  
Joanna Schmid ◽  
Valéa Schumacher ◽  

Antigen recognition by the T-cell receptor induces a cytosolic Ca2+ signal that is crucial for T-cell function. The Ca2+ channel TRPM2 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 2) has been shown to facilitate influx of extracellular Ca2+ through the plasma membrane of T cells. Therefore, it was suggested that TRPM2 is involved in T-cell activation and differentiation. However, these results are largely derived from in vitro studies using T-cell lines and non-physiologic means of TRPM2 activation. Thus, the relevance of TRPM2-mediated Ca2+ signaling in T cells remains unclear. Here, we use TRPM2-deficient mice to investigate the function of TRPM2 in T-cell activation and differentiation. In response to TCR stimulation in vitro, Trpm2-/- and WT CD4+ and CD8+ T cells similarly upregulated the early activation markers NUR77, IRF4, and CD69. We also observed regular proliferation of Trpm2-/- CD8+ T cells and unimpaired differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th1, Th17, and Treg cells under specific polarizing conditions. In vivo, Trpm2-/- and WT CD8+ T cells showed equal specific responses to Listeria monocytogenes after infection of WT and Trpm2-/- mice and after transfer of WT and Trpm2-/- CD8+ T cells into infected recipients. CD4+ T-cell responses were investigated in the model of anti-CD3 mAb-induced intestinal inflammation, which allows analysis of Th1, Th17, Treg, and Tr1-cell differentiation. Here again, we detected similar responses of WT and Trpm2-/- CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, our results argue against a major function of TRPM2 in T-cell activation and differentiation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 892
Mariia Belinskaia ◽  
Tomas Zurawski ◽  
Seshu Kumar Kaza ◽  
Caren Antoniazzi ◽  
J. Oliver Dolly ◽  

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known to intensify pain in various ways, so perturbing pertinent effects without negating its essential influences on neuronal functions could help the search for much-needed analgesics. Towards this goal, cultured neurons from neonatal rat trigeminal ganglia—a locus for craniofacial sensory nerves—were used to examine how NGF affects the Ca2+-dependent release of a pain mediator, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), that is triggered by activating a key signal transducer, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) with capsaicin (CAP). Measurements utilised neurons fed with or deprived of NGF for 2 days. Acute re-introduction of NGF induced Ca2+-dependent CGRP exocytosis that was inhibited by botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) or a chimera of/E and/A (/EA), which truncated SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein with Mr = 25 k) at distinct sites. NGF additionally caused a Ca2+-independent enhancement of the neuropeptide release evoked by low concentrations (<100 nM) of CAP, but only marginally increased the peak response to ≥100 nM. Notably, BoNT/A inhibited CGRP exocytosis evoked by low but not high CAP concentrations, whereas/EA effectively reduced responses up to 1 µM CAP and inhibited to a greater extent its enhancement by NGF. In addition to establishing that sensitisation of sensory neurons to CAP by NGF is dependent on SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, insights were gleaned into the differential ability of two regions in the C-terminus of SNAP-25 (181–197 and 198–206) to support CAP-evoked Ca2+-dependent exocytosis at different intensities of stimulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yi-Li Zheng ◽  
Xuan Su ◽  
Yu-Meng Chen ◽  
Jia-Bao Guo ◽  
Ge Song ◽  

Neuropathic pain (NP) is poorly managed, and in-depth mechanisms of gene transcriptome alterations in NP pathogenesis are not yet fully understood. To determine microRNA-related molecular mechanisms of NP and their transcriptional regulation in NP, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and CINAHL Complete (EBSCO) were searched from inception to April 2021. Commonly dysregulated miRNAs in NP were assessed. The putative targets of these miRNAs were determined using TargetScan, Funrich, Cytoscape and String database. A total of 133 literatures containing miRNA profiles studies and experimentally verify studies were included. Venn analysis, target gene prediction analysis and functional enrichment analysis indicated several miRNAs (miR-200b-3p, miR-96, miR-182, miR-183, miR-30b, miR-155 and miR-145) and their target genes involved in known relevant pathways for NP. Targets on transient receptor potential channels, voltage-gated sodium channels and voltage-gated calcium channels may be harnessed for pain relief. A further delineation of signal processing and modulation in neuronal ensembles is key to achieving therapeutic success in future studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Yue Hu ◽  
Qing-Yue Fu ◽  
Dan-Ni Fu ◽  
Xue-Long Wang ◽  
Zhi-Hong Wang ◽  

Itching is a common symptom of many skin or systemic diseases and has a negative impact on the quality of life. Zinc, one of the most important trace elements in an organism, plays an important role in the regulation of pain. Whether and how zinc regulates itching is largely unclear. Herein, we explored the role of Zn2+ in the regulation of acute and chronic itch in mice. It is found that intradermal injection (i.d.) of Zn2+ dose-dependently induced acute itch and transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) participated in Zn2+-induced acute itch in mice. Moreover, the pharmacological analysis showed the involvement of histamine, mast cells, opioid receptors, and capsaicin-sensitive C-fibers in Zn2+-induced acute itch in mice. Systemic administration of Zn2+ chelators, such as N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), pyrithione, and clioquinol were able to attenuate both acute itch and dry skin-induced chronic itch in mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis showed that the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of zinc transporters (ZIPs and ZnTs) significantly changed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) under dry skin-induced chronic itch condition in mice. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway was induced in the DRG and skin by the administration of zinc or under dry skin condition, which was inhibited by systemic administration of Zn2+ chelators. Finally, we found that the expression of GPR39 (a zinc-sensing GPCR) was significantly upregulated in the dry skin mice model and involved in the pathogenesis of chronic itch. Together, these results indicated that the TRPA1/GPR39/ERK axis mediated the zinc-induced itch and, thus, targeting zinc signaling may be a promising strategy for anti-itch therapy.

Stamatina Tzanoulinou ◽  
Stefano Musardo ◽  
Alessandro Contestabile ◽  
Sebastiano Bariselli ◽  
Giulia Casarotto ◽  

AbstractMutations in the SHANK3 gene have been recognized as a genetic risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by social deficits and repetitive behaviors. While heterozygous SHANK3 mutations are usually the types of mutations associated with idiopathic autism in patients, heterozygous deletion of Shank3 gene in mice does not commonly induce ASD-related behavioral deficit. Here, we used in-vivo and ex-vivo approaches to demonstrate that region-specific neonatal downregulation of Shank3 in the Nucleus Accumbens promotes D1R-medium spiny neurons (D1R-MSNs) hyperexcitability and upregulates Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (Trpv4) to impair social behavior. Interestingly, genetically vulnerable Shank3+/− mice, when challenged with Lipopolysaccharide to induce an acute inflammatory response, showed similar circuit and behavioral alterations that were rescued by acute Trpv4 inhibition. Altogether our data demonstrate shared molecular and circuit mechanisms between ASD-relevant genetic alterations and environmental insults, which ultimately lead to sociability dysfunctions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Aidan P. Nickerson ◽  
Laura J. Corbin ◽  
Nicholas J. Timpson ◽  
Keith Phillips ◽  
Anthony E. Pickering ◽  

Abstract Background Pain is a complex polygenic trait whose common genetic underpinnings are relatively ill-defined due in part to challenges in measuring pain as a phenotype. Pain sensitivity can be quantified, but this is difficult to perform at the scale required for genome wide association studies (GWAS). Existing GWAS of pain have identified surprisingly few loci involved in nociceptor function which contrasts strongly with rare monogenic pain states. This suggests a lack of resolution with current techniques. We propose an adaptive methodology within a recall-by-genotype (RbG) framework using detailed phenotyping to screen minor alleles in a candidate ‘nociceptor’ gene in an attempt to estimate their genetic contribution to pain. Methods/design Participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children will be recalled on the basis of genotype at five common non-synonomous SNPs in the ‘nociceptor’ gene transient receptor potential ankylin 1 (TRPA1). Those homozygous for the common alleles at each of the five SNPs will represent a control group. Individuals homozygous for the minor alleles will then be recruited in a series of three sequential test groups. The outcome of a pre-planned early assessment (interim) of the current test group will determine whether to continue recruitment or switch to the next test group. Pain sensitivity will be assessed using quantitative sensory testing (QST) before and after topical application of 10% cinnamaldehyde (a TRPA1 agonist). Discussion The design of this adaptive RbG study offers efficiency in the assessment of associations between genetic variation at TRPA1 and detailed pain phenotypes. The possibility to change the test group in response to preliminary data increases the likelihood to observe smaller effect sizes relative to a conventional multi-armed design, as well as reducing futile testing of participants where an effect is unlikely to be observed. This specific adaptive RbG design aims to uncover the influence of common TRPA1 variants on pain sensation but can be applied to any hypothesis-led genotype study where costly and time intensive investigation is required and / or where there is large uncertainty around the expected effect size. Trial registration: ISRCTN, ISRCTN16294731. Retrospectively registered 25th November 2021.

2022 ◽  
Jiaxin Gong ◽  
Niraj K. Nirala ◽  
Jiazhang Chen ◽  
Fei Wang ◽  
Pengyu Gu ◽  

Adult stem cells are essential for maintaining normal tissue homeostasis and supporting tissue repair. Although genetic and biochemical programs controlling adult stem cell behavior have been extensively investigated, how mechanosensing regulates stem cells and tissue homeostasis is not well understood. Here, we show that shear stress can activate enteroendocrine cells, but not other gut epithelial cell types, to regulate intestine stem cell-mediated gut homeostasis. This shear stress sensing is mediated by transient receptor potential A1 (TrpA1), a Ca2+-permeable ion channel expressed only in enteroendocrine cells among all gut epithelial cells. Genetic depletion of TrpA1 or modification of its shear stress sensing function causes reduced intestine stem cell proliferation and intestine growth. We further show that among the TrpA1 splice variants, only select isoforms are activated by shear stress. Altogether, our results suggest the naturally occurring mechanical force such as fluid passing generated shear stress regulates intestinal stem cell-mediated tissue growth by activating enteroendocrine cells, and Drosophila TrpA1 as a new shear stress sensor.

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