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2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (2) ◽  
pp. 3821-3835
Nitin Mittal ◽  
Harbinder Singh ◽  
Vikas Mittal ◽  
Shubham Mahajan ◽  
Amit Kant Pandit ◽  

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 59
Gavin Megson ◽  
Sabyasachi Gupta ◽  
Syed Muhammad Hashir ◽  
Ehsan Aryafar ◽  
Joseph Camp

Full-duplex (FD) communication in many-antenna base stations (BSs) is hampered by self-interference (SI). This is because a FD node’s transmitting signal generates significant interference to its own receiver. Recent works have shown that it is possible to reduce/eliminate this SI in fully digital many-antenna systems, e.g., through transmit beamforming by using some spatial degrees of freedom to reduce SI instead of increasing the beamforming gain. On a parallel front, hybrid beamforming has recently emerged as a radio architecture that uses multiple antennas per FR chain. This can significantly reduce the cost of the end device (e.g., BS) but may also reduce the capacity or SI reduction gains of a fully digital radio system. This is because a fully digital radio architecture can change both the amplitude and phase of the wireless signal and send different data streams from each antenna element. Our goal in this paper is to quantify the performance gap between these two radio architectures in terms of SI cancellation and system capacity, particularly in multi-user MIMO setups. To do so, we experimentally compare the performance of a state-of-the-art fully digital many antenna FD solution to a hybrid beamforming architecture and compare the corresponding performance metrics leveraging a fully programmable many-antenna testbed and collecting over-the-air wireless channel data. We show that SI cancellation through beam design on a hybrid beamforming radio architecture can achieve capacity within 16% of that of a fully digital architecture. The performance gap further shrinks with a higher number of quantization bits in the hybrid beamforming system.

Valeriy Zaycev ◽  
Alalvan Kasim

A physically justified method of synthesis of nonlinear oscillating systems oscillating in discrete time (DT) is proposed. Synthesized dynamic systems are used as nonlinear discrete (digital) filters and basic models of radio system elements.

2021 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
Hiroyuki Nakata ◽  
Kenro Nozaki ◽  
Yuhei Oki ◽  
Keisuke Hosokawa ◽  
Kumiko K. Hashimoto ◽  

AbstractHigh-frequency Doppler (HFD) sounding is one of the major remote sensing techniques used for monitoring the ionosphere. Conventional systems for HFDs mainly utilize analog circuits. However, existing analog systems have become difficult to maintain as the number of people capable of working with analog circuits has declined. To solve this problem, we developed an alternate HFD receiver system based on digital signal processing. The software-defined radio (SDR) technique enables the receiver to be set up without the knowledge of analog circuit devices. This approach also downsizes the system and reduces costs. A highly stabilized radio system for both the transmitter and receiver is necessary for stable long-term observations of various phenomena in the ionosphere. The global positioning system disciplined oscillator with an accuracy of $${10}^{-11}$$ 10 - 11 compensates for the frequency stability required by the new receiving system. In the new system, four frequencies are received and signal-processed simultaneously. The dynamic range of the new system is wider (> 130 dB) than that of the conventional system used in HFD observations conducted by the University of Electro-Communications in Japan. The signal-to-noise ratio significantly improved by 20 dB. The new digital system enables radio waves to be received with much smaller amplitudes at four different frequencies. The new digital receivers have been installed at some of the stations in the HFD observation network in Japan and have already captured various ionospheric phenomena, including medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances and sudden commencement induced electric field fluctuations, which indicates the feasibility of SDR for actual ionospheric observations. The new digital receiver is simple, inexpensive, and small in size, which makes it easy to deploy new receiving stations in Japan and elsewhere. These advantages of the new system will help drive the construction of a wide HFD observation network. Graphical Abstract

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
pp. 358-369
L. F. Chernogor ◽  

Purpose: The most important problem of any state is protection of the control and management systems used for the country, national armed forces, high-risk facilities (nuclear power plants, large chemical plants, airports, etc.). Here, the fact that the means of attack can be deployed on ballistic and cruise missiles, aircraft, and drones should be accounted for. The flight altitude of these vehicles varies from ≈300 km to ≈ 10 m. Any attack vehicle is equipped with complex avionics consisting of circuit elements sensitive to electromagnetic fields. Since the 1980s, a new scientific and engineering direction has been developing, being termed as a “functional damage to avionics”. It is based on the creation of powerful means of electromagnetic radiation possessing the energetic capabilities of incapacitating avionics at significant distances (from ~ 100 m to ~ 1000 km). The purpose of this work is to analyze the possible functional damage to avionics with account for the tendencies in avionics technologies. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is made on the capability of inflicting functional damage to avionics accounting for the modern trends in developing the powerful means of electromagnetic energy generation in the microwave and shorter wavelength ranges, miniaturization and integration of avionics circuit elements. The regression is constructed for the critical energy time dependence. It has been determined that for decades the critical energy required to damage the circuit elements shows a tendency to decrease. This is due to the further miniaturization and integration of microcircuits according to the Moore’s law, which is still valid for now. For a number of circuit elements, the critical energy is found to be in the range of 10-11–10-10 J. At the same time, a reverse tendency arises to protect avionics from being functionally damaged. In this case, the critical energy makes 10-7–10-6 J and greater. From the derived version of the basic equation of functional damage to avionics, the maximum distance at which the damage is possible with the energetics of the existing radio systems is estimated. For the ground-based facilities, this distance can attain hundreds of kilometers. For mobile vehicles, it can reach 10–100 km. Combining target detection, identification and avionics damage capabilities in one radio system has been validated and advised. The transition from the first mode of operation to the second one occurs at shorter distances with an increase of 2–3 orders of magnitude in the pulse energy. Findings: The regression equation has been obtained for the time dependence of the critical energy required for inflicting functional damage to avionics. Its constant decrease has been confirmed. Such a behavior is closely related to the Moore’s law, which characterizes the degree of miniaturization and integration of avionics circuit elements. It has been predicted that for a number of instruments the critical energy can be smaller than 10-11–10-10 J. A version of the basic equation of functional damage to avionics has been obtained. The maximum distance for a modern radio system to damage the avionics has been shown to attain many hundreds of kilometers. For the radio systems installed on mobile vehicles, this distance makes 10–100 km. Target detection, tracking and identification, as well as avionics damage capabilities, have been proved to be rationally combined in one radio system. To cause damage at a corresponding range, the pulse energy needs to be increased by a factor of 102–103. Conclusions: There are all science and technology prerequisites for developing effective radio systems inflicting functional damage to avionics and for the state defense and protection, armed forces, and high-risk facility controlling systems. Key words: functional damage; avionics; critical energy; Moore’s law; functional damage equation; radiolocation equation; detection and destruction range

2021 ◽  
Ali Ghavidel ◽  
Sami Myllymäki ◽  
Mikko Kokkonen ◽  
Nuutti Tervo ◽  
Heli Jantunen

2021 ◽  
Vol 92 (11) ◽  
pp. 880-885
Juliana Maria Araujo Caldeira ◽  
Maria Valéria ◽  
Schmidt Goffi-Gomez ◽  
Rui Imamura ◽  
Ricardo Ferreira Bento

BACKGROUND: The speech recognition levels of cochlear implant (CI) users are still incompatible with ICAO hearing requirements for civil aviation pilots testing in the noisy background condition of the helicopter cockpit. In this study, we evaluated noise attenuation effects on speech recognition in the same background condition.METHODS: The study involved the evaluation of 12 Portuguese-speaking CI users with post-lingual deafness and with a pure tone average up to 35 dB HL between 500 and 2000 Hz and up to 50 dB at 3000 Hz on at least one of the ears, and of three normal hearing pilots (controls). We performed speech recognition tests using sentences, numbers, and disyllables for all participants through the VHF radio. The assessment took place inside a helicopter with engine on, using three setups: 1) with headset without the active noise cancellation; 2) activating the noise cancellation system of the headset itself; and 3) connecting the speech processor directly to the helicopter radio system.RESULTS: The headset active noise-cancellation improved only the recognition of sentences. The direct connection system compared to the headset without anti-noise attenuation significantly improved all the recognition tests. The median for numbers was 90%, but the best score for disyllables recognition was 56%.DISCUSSION: The noise attenuation resources proposed in this study improved the CI users speech recognition when exposed to the noisy helicopter cockpit. However, speech recognition of CI users still did not meet the standards of ICAO, which requires at least 80% for understanding disyllables in the speech in noise test.Caldeira JMA, Goffi-Gomez MVS, Imamura R, Bento RF. Noise attenuation effects on speech recognition of cochlear implant users inside helicopters. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2021; 92(11):880-885.

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