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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 753
Haoyu Yu ◽  
Farman Ali ◽  
Shanshan Tu ◽  
Hanen M. Karamti ◽  
Ammar Armghan ◽  

Managing the users multimedia and long-range based demands, the radio over fiber (RoF) mechanism has been introduced recently. RoF mingles the optical and radio communication frameworks to increase mobility and offer high capacity communication networks (CNs). In this paper, a full-duplex RoF-based CN is investigated for the next-generation passive optical network (PON), utilizing wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology. The desolations on account of optical and electronic domains (OEDs) are addressed, using dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) and optical and electrical filters, including modulation scheme. The analytical and simulation models are analyzed in terms of phase error (PE), radio frequency (RF), fiber length and input and received powers. The performance of the proposed model is successfully evaluated for 50 km range, −40 to −18 dBm received power, −20 to 0 dBm input power, where below 10−6 bit error rate (BER) is recorded. Thus, this signifies that the presented model exhibits smooth execution against OEDs impairments.

2022 ◽  
Chandan Kumar Sheemar ◽  
Dirk Slock

This paper presents two novel hybrid beamforming (HYBF) designs for a multi-cell massive multiple-input-multiple-output (mMIMO) millimeter wave (mmWave) full duplex (FD) system under limited dynamic range (LDR). Firstly, we present a novel centralized HYBF (C-HYBF) scheme based on alternating optimization. In general, the complexity of C-HYBF schemes scales quadratically as a function of the number of users and cells, which may limit their scalability. Moreover, they require significant communication overhead to transfer complete channel state information (CSI) to the central node every channel coherence time for optimization. The central node also requires very high computational power to jointly optimize many variables for the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) users in FD systems. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a very low-complexity and scalable cooperative per-link parallel and distributed (P$\&$D)-HYBF scheme. It allows each mmWave FD base station (BS) to update the beamformers for its users in a distributed fashion and independently in parallel on different computational processors. The complexity of P$\&$D-HYBF scales only linearly as the network size grows, making it desirable for the next generation of large and dense mmWave FD networks. Simulation results show that both designs significantly outperform the fully digital half duplex (HD) system with only a few radio-frequency (RF) chains and achieve similar performance. <br>

Complexity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-24
Ling Yang ◽  
Weiwei Yang ◽  
Liang Tang ◽  
Liwei Tao ◽  
Xingbo Lu ◽  

In this work, we investigated a covert communication method in wireless networks, which is realized by multiantenna full-duplex single relay. In the first stage, the source node sends covert messages to the relay, and the relay uses a single antenna to send interference signals to the adversary node to protect the covert information being transmitted. In the second stage, the relay decodes and forwards the covert information received in the first stage; at the same time, the relay uses zero-forcing beamforming to send interference signals to the warden to ensure covert transmission. The detection error rate, transmission outage probability, maximum effective covert rate, and other performance indicators are derived in two stages, and the total performance of the system is derived and analyzed. Then, the performance indicators are verified and analyzed by simulation. Our analysis shows that the maximum effective covert rate of using the characteristics of multiantenna to interfere with Willie in the second stage is taken as the total covert performance of the system, and the transmission interruption probability is significantly less than that of the first stage, so the corresponding maximum effective concealment efficiency will be greater.

2022 ◽  
Dong-Nhat Nguyen ◽  
Luis Vallejo ◽  
Vicenc Almenar ◽  
Beatriz Ortega ◽  
Pham Tien Dat ◽  

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 172
Jiahao Zhang ◽  
Fangmin He ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
Yi Li ◽  
Qing Wang ◽  

Increased demand for higher spectrum efficiency, especially in the space-limited chip, base station, and vehicle environments, has spawned the development of full-duplex communications, which enable the transmitting and receiving to occur simultaneously at the same frequency. The key challenge in this full-duplex communication paradigm is to reduce the self-interference as much as possible, ideally, down to the noise floor. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the self-interference cancellation (SIC) techniques for co-located communication systems from a circuits and fields perspective. The self-interference occurs when the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna are co-located, which significantly degrade the system performance of the receiver, in terms of the receiver desensitization, signal masking, or even damage of hardwares. By introducing the SIC techniques, the self-interference can be suppressed and the weak desired signal from the remote transmitter can be recovered. This, therefore, enables the full-duplex communications to come into the picture. The SIC techniques are classified into two main categories: the traditional circuit-domain SICs and the novel field-domain SICs, according to the method of how to rebuild and subtract the self-interference signal. In this review paper, the field-domain SIC method is systematically summarized for the first time, including the theoretical analysis and the application remarks. Some typical SIC approaches are presented and the future works are outlooked.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Haibin Jiang ◽  
Zhiyong Yu ◽  
Jian Yang ◽  
Kai Kang

Full-duplex cooperative spectrum sensing (FD-CSS) is an important research field in the field of spectrum sensing. In the FD-CSS network, the secondary user (SU) senses the usage status of the authorized spectrum by the primary user (PU) through the sensing channel and then reports the perceived data to the fusion center (FC) through the reporting channel. The FC makes a comprehensive judgment after summarizing the data through the fusion algorithm. In the secondary network with SU, throughput is an important index to measure the performance of the network. Taking throughput as the optimization goal, this paper theoretically deduces and verifies the optimal data fusion algorithm in cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS), the threshold of optimal energy detection, and the optimal transmission power of SU in the secondary network. The simulation results show the correctness of the results in this paper.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 375
Derek Kwaku Pobi Asiedu ◽  
Ji-Hoon Yun

This paper investigates the power resource optimization problem for a new cognitive radio framework with a symbiotic backscatter-aided full-duplex secondary link under imperfect interference cancellation and other hardware impairments. The problem is formulated using two approaches, namely, maximization of the sum rate and maximization of the primary link rate, subject to rate constraints on the secondary link, and the solution for each approach is derived. The problem of a half-duplex secondary link is also solved. Simulation results show that the sum rate and exploitation of the full-duplex capability of the secondary link are strongly affected by both the problem objective and hardware impairments.

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