frequency stability
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 203 ◽  
pp. 107669
C.J. Ferrandon-Cervantes ◽  
Behzad Kazemtabrizi ◽  
Matthias C.M. Troffaes

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xiuli Si ◽  
Xiaoxin Wu ◽  
Feng You ◽  
Hongliang Yuan ◽  
Yien Xu ◽  

For an electric power grid that has large penetration levels of variable renewable energy including wind generation and photovoltaics, the system frequency stability is jeopardized, which is manifest in lowering frequency nadir and settling frequency. This paper suggests an enhanced primary frequency response strategy of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) in association with pitch angle control. The DFIG works in de-loaded operation with a certain reserve power via pitch angle control prior to disturbances for frequency regulation. To address this, a function of the pitch angle is employed that decreases the pitch angle with time to slowly feed the active power to the power gird. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed primary frequency response strategy including the settling frequency and frequency nadir.

AIP Advances ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 015319
Hasnet Ahmed ◽  
Payman Rajai ◽  
Mohammed Jalal Ahamed

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Badar ul Islam ◽  
Zuhairi Baharudin ◽  
Parameshwari Kattel

Power plant emissions are a major cause of pollution in the environment. This necessitates the progressive replacement of conventional power plants with renewable energy sources. Changes in the quotas for conventional generating and renewable energy sources present new issues for modern power networks for example photovoltaic and wind turbines are replacing conventional power plants, which do not add to system inertia and due to the earth’s diurnal cycle and weather conditions. Solar radiations are not consistent all through the day, and photovoltaic (PV) generation is sometimes insufficient to meet the power requirement of the shifting local load. The amount of inertia in the power system, as well as the action of adjustable frequency reserves and the amount of power imbalance, all have an impact on frequency stability. As a result, estimating power system inertia and assessing frequency response are required so that necessary actions can be taken to assure frequency stability. In this way, the system frequency, power, and voltage stability are the major issues when high proportion of renewables are added. In this paper, we explained estimating power system inertia-related frequency problems. The approach account for the frequency and voltage fluctuations that occur after a disturbance and estimate the system’s total inertia constant as well as its overall power imbalance. The anticipated technique based on computational intelligence is used to analyze frequency responses from simulations of a test system under various circumstances on SIMULINK and focuses on the standalone PV system is critical for controlling it. As a result, the modelling of a PV system, battery, and generator using analogous circuits is discussed. As a matter of fact, maximum power should be harvested from a PV array to increase its efficiency that is depicted from the result outcomes of this research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 118-126
Md. Kamrul Islam ◽  
Mohammad Abdul Mannan ◽  
Md. Rifat Hazari

Due to the extensive integration of renewable energy sources (RESs), i.e., photovoltaic (PV) system, the future power system is developing into an inverter-based system from a dominated alternator-based power system. This massive penetration of inverter-based PV system reduced the system inertia and damping characteristics of the power grid, impacting the fault ride-through (FRT) capability and causes frequency instability. Modern grid codes require that PV systems should work in the same way as conventional power plants and assist the system during transient state. However, most of the conventional inverter control mechanisms failed to fulfill the requirements of grid codes, especially when the penetration ratio of the PV system is close to the conventional unit. Therefore, this paper proposes a virtual synchronous generator (VSG) control mechanism of PV system inverter to augment FRT competency and frequency stability. The proposed VSG control system mimics the behavior of conventional power plants. To observe and evaluate the proposed controller behavior, simulation analyses were executed in the PSCAD/EMTDC software for both proposed and conventional controllers. The simulation results clearly indicate that the proposed VSG control system has sufficient damping characteristics to ensure FRT capability and frequency stability.       

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Thayathip Thongtan ◽  
Sivinee Sawatdiaree ◽  
Chalermchon Satirapod

Abstract GNSS signals have been a practical time transfer tool to realise a Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and set civilian clocks around the world with respect to this atomic time standard. UTC time scale is maintained by the International Bureau of Weights and Measurements (BIPM) adjusted to be close to a time scale based on the Earth’s rotation. In Thailand, the official atomic time clocks are maintained by the National Institute of Metrology Thailand (NIMT) to produce UTC(NIMT) and Thailand standard time which is always 7 hours ahead of UTC(NIMT) because of the time zone differences between Greenwich and Bangkok. National Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) infrastructure comprises of GNSS geodetic receivers uniformly distributed to continually observe GNSS signals, mainly for geodetic survey applications both real-time and post-processing services. NIMT is involved in order to provide time link to UTC and to determine the characteristics of GNSS receiver internal clocks; namely, fractional frequency offset and frequency stabilities by applying the GNSS time transfer techniques of common-view algorithms. Monitored time differences with respect to UTC(NIMT) are achieved from selected 4 ground stations in different parts of the country with observations of 21 days in order to determine the frequency stability at 1-day and 7-day modes. GNSS standard log files; in RINEX format, at these receivers are transformed into a time transfer standard format; CGGTTS, used to compute the time differences between two stations, the fractional frequency offset and the frequency stability. Averaged fractional frequency offsets are 2.8 × 10 − 13 Hertz/Hertz 2.8\times {10^{-13}}\hspace{2.38387pt}\text{Hertz/Hertz} and computed Allan deviation is around 1.5 × 10 − 13 Hertz/Hertz 1.5\times {10^{-13}}\hspace{2.38387pt}\text{Hertz/Hertz} for an averaging time of 1 day. The comparison of the national time scale and receiver clock offsets of every receivers in this national GNSS PNT infrastructure could be accomplished through common-view time transfer using GNSS satellites to maintain the time link of geodetic active control points to UTC as well as to determine receiver internal clock characteristics.

Photonics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 560
Ji Wang ◽  
Wenwu Zhang ◽  
Tianrun Zhang

Greatly improving the energy of a single mode-locked pulse while ensuring the acquisition of the width of short pulses will contribute to the application of mode-locked pulse in basic research, such as precision machining. This report has investigated a Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) erbium doped ring fiber laser based on the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technology and a mechanical Q-switched device. Without the working of the mechanical Q-switched device, the fiber laser exported the continuous-wave mode-locked (CWML) pulse, with a width of 212.5 ps, and a repetition frequency of 81.97 MHz. For the CWML operation, the maximum output average power is 25.7 mW, and the energy is only 0.31 nJ. For the QML operation, 18.03 mW average power is achieved at the Q-switching frequency of 100 Hz. The energy of the QML pulse is increased by over 1100 times to 360.6 nJ. The width of the QML pulse is 203.1 ps measured by an autocorrelation curve, with the time-band product (TBP) being 0.598. The power instability is 0.5% (RMS) and 0.7% (RMS), respectively, for CWML and QML operation within 120 min. Furthermore, the spectral signal-to-noise ratio is about 60 dB. For the QML operation, the power instability is 0.48% (RMS) within 60 s and 0.37% (RMS) within 10 s. After frequency stabilization, the frequency fluctuation is ±100 Hz in the long-term of 1200 s, with the frequency stability (FS) calculated to be 2.44 × 10−6. It indicates that the QML fiber laser has good power stability and frequency stability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11359
Giuseppe Marco Tina ◽  
Giovanni Maione ◽  
Sebastiano Licciardello ◽  
Domenico Stefanelli

Power systems are rapidly evolving to face the increasing penetration of renewable inverter-based generation units and to improve their reliability and safety. A power system is constantly exposed to sudden changes or disturbances that may affect its stability. In this paper, a comparative analysis of solutions to improve transient stability, both rotor angle and frequency stability, is performed. These solutions are SVC, STATCOM, a fast excitation system, and an additional parallel transmission line. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of the location of the three-phase fault line and the most effective SVC or STATCOM installation bus. Based on these analyses, the worst-case fault is considered, and the critical fault clearing time is determined as an engineering parameter for comparing the different solutions. For the numerical analysis, the IEEE 9 bus system is considered, and the PowerWorld software tool is used. Rotor angle and frequency stability analyses were performed. Moreover, specifically for SVC and STATCOM, the effects of different values of short-circuit ratios were considered in the context of rotor angle stability analysis. As part of the frequency stability analysis, the use of the remuneration for load shedding service in Italy was considered to perform an economic analysis for SVC and STATCOM.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document