health policy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-11
Jessica Magarinos ◽  
Takshaka Patel ◽  
Jason Strunk ◽  
Keith Naunheim ◽  
Cherie P. Erkmen

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Reza Majdzadeh ◽  
Haniye Sadat Sajadi ◽  
Bahareh Yazdizadeh ◽  
Leila Doshmangir ◽  
Elham Ehsani-Chimeh ◽  

Abstract Background The institutionalization of evidence-informed health policy-making (EIHP) is complex and complicated. It is complex because it has many players and is complicated because its institutionalization will require many changes that will be challenging to make. Like many other issues, strengthening EIHP needs a road map, which should consider challenges and address them through effective, harmonized and contextualized strategies. This study aims to develop a road map for enhancing EIHP in Iran based on steps of planning. Methods This study consisted of three phases: (1) identifying barriers to EIHP, (2) recognizing interventions and (3) measuring the use of evidence in Iran's health policy-making. A set of activities was established for conducting these, including foresight, systematic review and policy dialogue, to identify the current and potential barriers for the first phase. For the second phase, an evidence synthesis was performed through a scoping review, by searching the websites of benchmark institutions which had good examples of EIHP practices in order to extract and identify interventions, and through eight policy dialogues and two broad opinion polls to contextualize the list of interventions. Simultaneously, two qualitative-quantitative studies were conducted to design and use a tool for assessing EIHP in the third phase. Results We identified 97 barriers to EIHP and categorized them into three groups, including 35 barriers on the “generation of evidence” (push side), 41 on the “use of evidence” (pull side) and 21 on the “interaction between these two” (exchange side). The list of 41 interventions identified through evidence synthesis and eight policy dialogues was reduced to 32 interventions after two expert opinion polling rounds. These interventions were classified into four main strategies for strengthening (1) the education and training system (6 interventions), (2) the incentives programmes (7 interventions), (3) the structure of policy support organizations (4 interventions) and (4) the enabling processes to support EIHP (15 interventions). Conclusion The policy options developed in the study provide a comprehensive framework to chart a path for strengthening the country’s EIHP considering both global practices and the context of Iran. It is recommended that operational plans be prepared for road map interventions, and the necessary resources provided for their implementation. The implementation of the road map will require attention to the principles of good governance, with a focus on transparency and accountability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 891
Karel Frömel ◽  
Dorota Groffik ◽  
Michal Kudláček ◽  
Michal Šafář ◽  
Anna Zwierzchowska ◽  

This study aimed to (a) identify the differences in the preferred, practiced, and organized physical activity (PA) between high and low physically active Czech and Polish boys and girls and to (b) identify which types of PA are likely to be recommended by low active boys and girls. The research was carried out between 2010 and 2019 in the Czech Republic and Poland and included 6619 participants aged 15 to 19 years. The preferences and practices of the different types of PA and participation in organized PA were identified using a PA preference questionnaire and weekly PA was identified using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form. Czech and Polish boys and girls who were low active preferred less physically demanding and more health-oriented PA compared with high active individuals. Power exercises and participation in organized PA are the most significant predictors of achieving at least 3 × 20 min of vigorous PA per week among low active individuals in both countries. Monitoring the trends in the preferred and practiced types of PA among boys and girls is crucial for the effective promotion of PA to low active boys and girls and positive changes in physical education and school health policy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 81 (1) ◽  
Hlupheka L. Sithole

Background: There are many fragmented public health policies that give directives towards various aspects of healthcare needs and implementation. However, none of these policies make specific reference to eye health promotion (EHP) as an enabler for individuals to take control of the determinants of their eye health (EH) needs.Aim: The current study sought to identify EHP messages in the various available policy documents at both national and provincial health department levels with a view to assessing awareness on the available gaps for the development of an integrated EHP policy in South Africa.Setting: The study used documents provided by the National Department of Health and those that were available online from various other provincial Departments of Health in the country.Methods: Content analysis of EH policies requested from the Directorate of Chronic Diseases, Disabilities and Geriatrics was conducted. Various other health policies that were enacted post-1994 and endorsed by the National and Provincial Departments of Health were also considered for analysis.Results: Twenty-four documents were considered for content analysis. The national guidelines on eye healthcare made reference to EH activities such as immunisation of children, vision screening of the elderly, vitamin A supplementation and maternal services to detect sexually transmitted diseases, amongst others. Of the 20 national and provincial health documents analysed, only four made reference to EH. None of these documents made any specific reference to EHP.Conclusion: Although four national guidelines contain content related to EHP, the fragmentation and lack of integration with other health policy documents may lead to eye healthcare messages not being prioritised for dissemination even where they are highly required. Also, public eye healthcare services in general will continue to lag behind as is the case in most provinces in South Africa.

Matthias Klumpp ◽  
Dominic Loske ◽  
Silvio Bicciato

AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is a global challenge to humankind. To improve the knowledge regarding relevant, efficient and effective COVID-19 measures in health policy, this paper applies a multi-criteria evaluation approach with population, health care, and economic datasets from 19 countries within the OECD. The comparative investigation was based on a Data Envelopment Analysis approach as an efficiency measurement method. Results indicate that on the one hand, factors like population size, population density, and country development stage, did not play a major role in successful pandemic management. On the other hand, pre-pandemic healthcare system policies were decisive. Healthcare systems with a primary care orientation and a high proportion of primary care doctors compared to specialists were found to be more efficient than systems with a medium level of resources that were partly financed through public funding and characterized by a high level of access regulation. Roughly two weeks after the introduction of ad hoc measures, e.g., lockdowns and quarantine policies, we did not observe a direct impact on country-level healthcare efficiency, while delayed lockdowns led to significantly lower efficiency levels during the first COVID-19 wave in 2020. From an economic perspective, strategies without general lockdowns were identified as a more efficient strategy than the full lockdown strategy. Additionally, governmental support of short-term work is promising. Improving the efficiency of COVID-19 countermeasures is crucial in saving as many lives as possible with limited resources.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jo Hunter-Adams ◽  
Anna Strebel ◽  
Joanne Corrigall ◽  
Virginia Zweigenthal

Abstract Background Many low-and-middle-income countries, including South Africa, have high rates of teenage pregnancy. Following the World Health Organisation recommendations, South African health policy on infant feeding promotes exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age, with gradual weaning. At the same time, South Africa’s education department, in the interest of learners, promotes adolescents’ early return to school post-partum. Yet infant feeding at school is currently not perceived as a realistic option. Methods Recognising his this policy tension, we aimed to explore how policies are interpreted and implemented by the health and education sectors through interviews with key informants who produce, interpret and implement these policies. Using an interview guide developed for this study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 24 health policy makers, managers in both sectors, school principals and nursing staff who manage adolescent mothers (aged 16-19) and their babies. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Results Informants from both sectors expressed discomfort at pregnant learners remaining in school late in pregnancy and were uncertain about policy regarding when to return to school and how long to breast-feed. Educators reported that new mothers typically returned to school within a fortnight after delivery and that breastfeeding was not common. While health professionals highlighted the benefits of extended breastfeeding for infants and mothers, they recognised the potential conflict between the need for the mother to return to school and the recommendation for longer breastfeeding. Additionally, the need for ongoing support of young mothers and their families was highlighted. Conclusions Our findings suggest educators should actively encourage school attendance in a healthy pregnant adolescent until delivery with later return to school, and health providers should focus attention on breastfeeding for the initial 4-6 weeks postpartum, followed by guided support of formula-feeding. We encourage the active engagement of adolescents’ mothers and extended families who are often involved in infant feeding and care decisions. Education and health departments must engage to facilitate the interests of both the mother and infant: some exclusive infant feeding together with a supported return to school for the adolescent mother.

Stefan Bozic ◽  
Don Vicendese ◽  
Michael Livingston ◽  
Bircan Erbas

Current alcohol public health policy in Australia is not uniform but is generally focused on restricting access and early prevention of problematic alcohol use. Semi-urban and rural populations are at greater risk of disease and other poor health outcomes due to a variety of factors. Little is known about problematic drinking patterns over time in semi-urban and rural populations. This study aims to assess patterns of problematic drinking defined as both long-term risky and heavy episodic drinking over time by age, sex, and mental health status among urban, semi-urban and rural populations). Four waves (2004 to 2016) of the Australian NDSHS (National Drug Strategy Household Survey) were analyzed to assess problematic drinking of participants over 18 years of age. We used regression models and predictive margins to identify trends in problematic drinking over time based on age, sex, and mental health status. Our results show young adults across all regions, males, and mentally well individuals in urban areas have reductions in the risk of problematic drinking over time. Middle-aged adults across all regions, females, and those with varying mental health presentations in rural areas have some increases in risk of problematic drinking over time. The general conclusion is that targeted alcohol-related public health policy may need to change and focus on females, middle-aged individuals, and those living in rural areas. Programs to support problematic drinking in people with mental health disorders may also need to be a priority.

Amaya Erro-Garcés ◽  
Maria Elena Aramendia-Muneta ◽  
María Errea ◽  
Juan M. Cabases-Hita

This paper aims to analyse the relationship between perceived health and earnings across Europe. Empirical analysis is based on the last published round from the European Working Conditions Survey (N = 43,850) and offers updated evidence on the effect of earnings on perceived health in 35 countries. The main findings show a positive and significant relationship between earnings and health, which is consistent with the existing literature. Moreover, health seems to be U-shaped relative to earnings. On the other hand, age is negatively related to health, which is consistent with previous research. This paper shows the health differences between countries, where cultural, geographic, and economic differences imply health inequalities across countries. From a practical perspective, understanding the dynamics of perceived health and earnings’ processes can contribute to health policy.

Medical Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Ferhat D. Zengul ◽  
Nurettin Oner ◽  
Bunyamin Ozaydin ◽  
Allyson G. Hall ◽  
Eta S. Berner ◽  

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