<p><span>A novel approach for multimodal liver image contrast enhancement is put forward in this paper. The proposed approach utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of liver as a guide to enhance the structures of computed tomography (CT) liver. The enhancement process consists of two phases: The first phase is the transformation of MRI and CT modalities to be in the same range. Then the histogram of CT liver is adjusted to match the histogram of MRI. In the second phase, an adaptive histogram equalization technique is presented by splitting the CT histogram into two sub-histograms and replacing their cumulative distribution functions with two smooths sigmoid. The subjective and objective assessments of experimental results indicated that the proposed approach yields better results. In addition, the image contrast is effectively enhanced as well as the mean brightness and details are well preserved.</span></p>
<span>Since data is available increasingly on the Internet, efforts are needed to develop and improve recommender systems to produce a list of possible favorite items. In this paper, we expand our work to enhance the accuracy of Arabic collaborative filtering by applying sentiment analysis to user reviews, we also addressed major problems of the current work by applying effective techniques to handle the scalability and sparsity problems. The proposed approach consists of two phases: the sentiment analysis and the recommendation phase. The sentiment analysis phase estimates sentiment scores using a special lexicon for the Arabic dataset. The item-based and singular value decomposition-based collaborative filtering are used in the second phase. Overall, our proposed approach improves the experiments’ results by reducing average of mean absolute and root mean squared errors using a large Arabic dataset consisting of 63,000 book reviews.</span>
The institutionalization of evidence-informed health policy-making (EIHP) is complex and complicated. It is complex because it has many players and is complicated because its institutionalization will require many changes that will be challenging to make. Like many other issues, strengthening EIHP needs a road map, which should consider challenges and address them through effective, harmonized and contextualized strategies. This study aims to develop a road map for enhancing EIHP in Iran based on steps of planning.
This study consisted of three phases: (1) identifying barriers to EIHP, (2) recognizing interventions and (3) measuring the use of evidence in Iran's health policy-making. A set of activities was established for conducting these, including foresight, systematic review and policy dialogue, to identify the current and potential barriers for the first phase. For the second phase, an evidence synthesis was performed through a scoping review, by searching the websites of benchmark institutions which had good examples of EIHP practices in order to extract and identify interventions, and through eight policy dialogues and two broad opinion polls to contextualize the list of interventions. Simultaneously, two qualitative-quantitative studies were conducted to design and use a tool for assessing EIHP in the third phase.
We identified 97 barriers to EIHP and categorized them into three groups, including 35 barriers on the “generation of evidence” (push side), 41 on the “use of evidence” (pull side) and 21 on the “interaction between these two” (exchange side). The list of 41 interventions identified through evidence synthesis and eight policy dialogues was reduced to 32 interventions after two expert opinion polling rounds. These interventions were classified into four main strategies for strengthening (1) the education and training system (6 interventions), (2) the incentives programmes (7 interventions), (3) the structure of policy support organizations (4 interventions) and (4) the enabling processes to support EIHP (15 interventions).
The policy options developed in the study provide a comprehensive framework to chart a path for strengthening the country’s EIHP considering both global practices and the context of Iran. It is recommended that operational plans be prepared for road map interventions, and the necessary resources provided for their implementation. The implementation of the road map will require attention to the principles of good governance, with a focus on transparency and accountability.
The hemoglobinopathies are the most common single-gene defect in man. The thalassemia syndromes are a heterogeneous group of hereditary disorder due to decreased synthesis of either α or β globin chain of Hb A. There are 3 phases of growth disturbances and have three different etiologies. First phase: growth disturbances is mainly due to hypoxia, anaemia, ineffective erythropoiesis and nutritional factors; the Second phase: During late childhood, growth retardation is mainly due to iron overload affecting the GH-IGF-1 axis and other endocrinal complications. Third phase: after the age of 10-11 years, delayed or arrested puberty is an important contributory factor to growth failure in adolescents thalassemic who does not show any growth spurt. Cross-sectional, observational, single-centre, tertiary hospital-based study. Children of thalassemia major of 2-12 years with multiple transfusions was taken over 1 year. Study population was divided into 2 groups: Group1-irregularly transfused; Group 2-regularly transfused. Clinical settings, anthropometry, laboratory tests like serum ferritin, pre-transfusion haemoglobin, total leucocyte count etc. were taken into consideration. Thalassemia children with other comorbidities like tuberculosis, chronic kidney disease, chronic heart diseases etc. were excluded from the study.Among the 200 children, 143 (71.5%) were taking regular (2-4 weekly) transfusion therapy and 57 (28.5%) were taking irregular transfusion (>4weekly). Mean age of diagnosis was 18.66 ± 7.443months in Group 1 (Irregularly transfused) and 18.93 ± 7.218 months in Group 2 (Regularly transfused). Among the regularly transfused thalassemic 17.7% children had W/A < 3 percentile and among the irregularly transfused children it was 15%. Among the irregularly transfused children, 27. 1% and among the regularly transfused children 21.6% had H/A <3rd percentile. In the present study children 61% had normal BMI and only 5.4 % had BMI less than 3rd percentile overall. Among irregularly transfused thalassemic children >10years of age, 86.7% have not attained puberty yet. Among the regularly transfused thalassemic children 96.7% have not attained puberty yet. US and LS individually affected resulting in stunting but it was proportionate innature so US: LS ratio was according to age. A positive correlation between pre-transfusion haemoglobin and W/A and H/A suggested that with decreasing pre-transfusion haemoglobin concentration more child had growth retardation. Mean value of serum Ferritin was 941 ± 608.490 ng/ml in Group 1(Irregularly transfused) and Mean value of serum Ferritin was 1403 ± 685.584ng/ml in Group 2(Regularly transfused). MUAC in the present study was 12.44cm suggesting mild-moderate malnutrition. Extremely variable clinical and haematological findings were observed in these patients. Growth retardation has found in both regularly and irregularly transfused patients. These findings are almost comparable to other Indian studies. Appropriate knowledge regarding prenatal counselling, early diagnosis, regular transfusions and overall treatment can help better management of this group of patients.
<p style="text-align: justify;">The purposes of this study were to explore factors and indicators of life and career skills and to develop a life and career skills in the 21st century test for undergraduate students. This research employed a mixed-method study adopting an exploratory design: instrument development model to generate research tools. This study was divided into two phases; Phase 1 was to explore factors and indicators of life and career skills in 21st century, by using a qualitative method to analyze relevant documents; Phase 2 was the development of a life and career skills in 21st century test by adopting a quantitative method to collect data from students studying in 12 universities of the north-eastern region of Thailand via the test. In the second phase, the data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Results revealed that the skills consisted of 6 factors and 35 indicators, and the test comprised 105 items. The quality of the test has been examined by five expertise, the reliability of all test items is acceptable, and all 6 factors demonstrated good construct validity. Factor loadings of six factors were 0.7940 -1.7816. This study can be implemented to measure the life and career skills of undergraduate students in any university to obtain data for establishing a policy and plans for maximizing students’ potential to achieve their careers and a happy living in 21st century after their graduation.</p>
Mice are valuable models extensively used to test vaccine candidates against Chlamydia abortus and to clarify immunopathological mechanisms of the bacteria. As this pathogen has the ability to reactivate during pregnancy, it is important to deepen the knowledge and understanding of some of the effects of female hormones on immunity and vaccination. This study is aimed at describing the role of sex hormones in the pathology of OEA during chlamydial clearance using ovariectomised mice and also gaining an understanding of how 17β-oestradiol or progesterone may impact the effectiveness of vaccination. Animals were treated with sex hormones and infected with C. abortus, and the kinetics of infection and immune response were analysed by means of bacterial isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In a second phase of the study, protection conferred by an experimental vaccine after hormone treatment was assessed. Oestradiol showed a stimulatory effect on the immune response during infection, with a more efficient recruitment of macrophages and T-cells at the infection site. Furthermore, after vaccination, oestradiol-treated animals showed a stronger protection against infection, indicating that this hormone has a positive effect, stimulating a specific memory response to the pathogen.
In the present study, the fatigue life and fatigue fracture characteristics of annealed 7005 aluminum alloy plates subjected to different pre-tensile deformations were investigated. The results obtained upon increasing the pre-tensile deformation of the alloy plate to 20% revealed that the second-phase particles did not show any obvious changes, and that the thickness of the thin strip grain slightly decreased. The dislocation distribution in the alloy matrix varied significantly among the grains or within each grain as the dislocation density gradually increased with increasing pre-tensile deformation. Moreover, the fatigue performance of the annealed 7005 aluminum alloy plate was significantly improved by the pre-tensile deformation, and the alloy plate subjected to 20% pre-tensile deformation exhibited an optimal fatigue life of ~1.06 × 106 cycles, which was 5.7 times and 5.3 times that of the undeformed and 3% pre-stretched alloy plates, respectively. Two fatigue life plateaus were observed in the pre-tensile deformation ranges of 3–5% and 8–12%, which corresponded to heterogeneous dislocation distribution among various grains and within each grain, respectively. Moreover, two large leaps in the plot of the fatigue-life–pre-tensile-deformation curve were observed, corresponding to the pre-tensile deformation ranges of 5–8% and 16–20%, respectively.
During severe plastic deformation (SPD), the processes of lattice defect formation as well as their relaxation (annihilation) compete with each other. As a result, a dynamic equilibrium is established, and a steady state is reached after a certain strain value. Simultaneously, other kinetic processes act in opposite directions and also compete with each other during SPD, such as grain refinement/growth, mechanical strengthening/softening, formation/decomposition of solid solution, etc. These competing processes also lead to dynamic equilibrium and result in a steady state (saturation), albeit after different strains. Among these steady-state phenomena, particle fragmentation during the second phase of SPD has received little attention. Available data indicate that precipitate fragmentation slows down with increasing strain, though saturation is achieved at higher strains than in the case of hardness or grain size. Moreover, one can consider the SPD-driven nanocrystallization in the amorphous phase as a process that is opposite to the fragmentation of precipitates. The size of these crystalline nanoprecipitates also saturates after a certain strain. The fragmentation of precipitates during SPD is the topic of this review.
Due to limited availability, Indonesia’s coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination will be done in 4 stages until herd immunity has been reached. Yogyakarta, an education and tourist destination, needs to get a specific, spatial estimation of the exact need for COVID-19 vaccination without delay. This study sheds light on identifying which districts should be prioritized at each vaccination phase. Secondary data collected from provincial, and county-level statistical agencies were quantitatively calculated by the Z-Score method. The results indicate that the first phase of vaccination should prioritize Pengasih and Sentolo districts in Kulon Progo Regency, which have a large number of health workers; the districts of Depok, Banguntapan, Piyungan, Sewon, Wonosari, Gamping, Mlati and Ngaglik should be done in the second phase based on the fact that these districts have many public service officials as well as elderly people; Umbulharjo and Depok districts will be approached in the third phase since they have more vulnerable groups and facilities that may promote COVID- 19 transmission during their daily activities; while the fourth phase should focus on the districts of Banguntapan, Sewon, Kasihan, Gamping, Mlati, Depok, and Ngaglik due to the intensity of COVID-19 clusters discovered there. Overall, vaccination would be given the priority in the districts with the largest number of people in need, i.e., public service officers, elderly people and those likely to be exposed to the coronavirus causing COVID-19.
Maggots is an organism derived from the eggs of the black fly, Hermentia illucens (black soldier fly, BSF), which undergoes metamorphosis in the second phase after the egg phase and before the pupa phase which then turns into an adult fly. The purpose of this study was to analyze the utilization of organic waste substrate on the production of BSF maggots cultivation. This research was conducted outdoor at the Freshwater Aquaculture Fisheries Center (BPBAT) Sungai Gelam Jambi with a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 3 replications; Treatment A: PKM (palm kernel meal) 100%, B (PKM 50% + cabbage vegetable waste 50%), C (PKM 50% + coconut pulp 50%) and D (PKM 50% + coconut pulp 25% + vegetable waste cabbage 25%). The average yield parameter of high maggots biomass in treatment A was 673.67 g/4 kg substrate and the lowest biomass in treatment D was 239.67 g/4 kg substrate. For the average weight and length of the best maggots in treatment A (0.20 g/individual) and (1.83 cm), the lowest was in B (0.12 g/Ind. and 1.58 cm). The highest was in treatment B (5,182.31 individual/4 kg substrate) and the lowest was in D (1,479.44 ind./4 kg substrate. The highest bioconversion value of maggots to organic matter OSE (organic substrate efficiency) was highest in treatment A (16, 84%) and the lowest was in D (5.99%). Technically, treatment A was slightly better than B, while economically the best organic substrate medium for maggots cultivation was in treatment B with a production cost of Rp. 7.257 and the ECR (economic conversion ratio) value of 5.81 was lower than the other 3 treatments.
Keywords: Maggots, black soldier fly, Hermentia illucens, organic waste.
Maggots merupakan organisme yang berasal dari telur seranga lalat hitam, Hermentia illucens (black soldier fly, BSF). Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu menganalisis pemanfaatan subtrat limbah organik terhadap produksi budidaya maggots BSF. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Balai Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar (BPBAT) Sungai Gelam, Jambi dengan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) 4 perlakuan 3 ulangan yaitu perlakuan A : PKM (palm kernel meal) 100%, B (PKM 50% + limbah sayur kol 50%), C (PKM 50% + ampas kelapa 50%), dan D (PKM 50% + ampas kelapa 25%+ limbah sayur kol 25%).Rata-rata biomassa tertinggi didapatkan pada perlakuanA (673,67g/4 kg subtrat) dan biomassa terendah dihasilkan pada perlakuan D (239.67g/4 kg subtrat). Untuk bobot rata-rata dan panjang maggots terbaik dihasilkan pada perlakuan A (0,20 g/individu dan 1,83 cm/individu), terendah pada B (0,12 g/individu dan (1,58 cm). Jumlah populasi maggots yang terbanyak dihasilkan pada perlakuan B (5.182,31 ind./4 kg subtrat) dan terendah pada D (1.479,44 individu/4 kg subtrat). Nilai biokonversi maggots terhadap bahan organik OSEterbaik (organic substrate efficiency) tertinggi pada perlakuan A (16,84%) dan terendah pada D (5,99%). Secara teknis perlakuan A sedikit lebih baik dari B sedangkan secara ekonomi media subtrat organik terbaik untuk budidaya maggots terdapat pada perlakuan B dengan biaya produksi sebesar Rp. 7.257 dan nilai ECR (economic convertion ratio) sebesar 5.81 lebih rendah dari ke 3 perlakuan lainnya.
Kata kunci: Maggots, black soldier fly, Hermentia illucens, limbah organik.