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2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 850
Author(s):  
Putri Nur Azizah ◽  
Herlina Siwi Widiana ◽  
Siti Urbayatun

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with patients that continue to increase per year. This study aimed to understand the role of self-esteem and religious orientation on depression with resilience as a mediator among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 100 patients were recruited from four public health centers. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depression. In contrast, self-esteem was measured using two aspects of Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale, namely self-liking and self-competence. Religious orientation was measured using Allport and Ross’s religious orientation scale, while resilience was measured using Connor and Davidson’s resilience scale. The results were analyzed using path analyses. The study found that resilience mediated the relationship between self-esteem and depression among DM patients. Self-esteem was also shown to correlate with resilience, and resilience also showed a significant relationship with depression. In contrast to initial predictions, however, there was no significant effect of religious orientation on resilience. The research implications suggest that resilience serves as an important protective factor toward depression among patients suffering from DM.


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 240-248
Author(s):  
Dara Anne Stanley ◽  
Emmeline Cosnett

Fuchsia magellanica (Ongaraceae) is a plant with a traditionally ornithopholous pollination system, pollinated primarily by hummingbirds in its native range. As a naturalised alien plant in Ireland, F. magellanica is visited largely by bumblebees, with evidence for nectar robbing behaviour of the long-tubed flowers. We aimed to investigate nectar robbing behaviour of bumblebees on F. magellanica, and in particular whether floral and pollinator traits (size) determined likelihood of nectar robbing. While F. magellanica was visited by a number of bumblebee species, only two with shorter tongue lengths were observed to rob nectar from flowers. Although there was no observed relationship between intra-specific bee body size and nectar robbing behaviour, nectar robbing was observed most frequently in the site with the highest number of bees. Proportions of robbed flowers were low overall and varied between populations, but there was a significant relationship between flower size and whether it was nectar robbed with larger flowers robbed more often. Our work suggests that floral size determines whether a flower-visitor will choose to nectar rob or not in this system. Nectar robbing may also be related to bee density which could suggest this behaviour is driven by competition for resources, or that it is learnt by observing other bees.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 105
Author(s):  
Oluwafemi Samuel Obisesan ◽  
Nomathamsanqa Patricia Sithebe ◽  
Hazel Tumelo Mufhandu

Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a widely distributed human pathogen that is known for its ulcerative lesions at the infection site. HSV can cause persistent infection in the host that is often followed by a period of latency within the neurons. Considering the high rate of HIV infection in South Africa, it is important to assess the seroprevalence of HSV with a focus to determine the epidemiological association between HSV-DNA and HIV-1 in the population. Methods: A total of 44 sera samples were screened for HSV and HIV-1 using the highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA positive samples were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm the positivity of both viruses and to further differentiate HSV into HSV-1 and -2. Thereafter, the samples were analysed for relatedness using phylogenetic analysis. Results: Of the 44 samples, 36 (81.8%) were positive for HIV-1, while 35 (79.5%) were positive for HSV when screened with ELISA kits. The PCR results, with the use of type specific primers, showed that 4/35 (11.4%) samples were specific for HSV-1 while 30/35 (85.7%) were specific for HSV-2. Statistical analysis performed using the chi-squared goodness-of-fit test showed that there is a significant relationship between HSV-2 and HIV-1 transmission. Conclusions:There is a significant relationship between HSV-2 and HIV-1 in the study population. Our study shows that some of the HSV-2 isolates are not related to the clinical isolate SD90e from South Africa, suggesting diversity in HSV-2 viral transmission.


Author(s):  
Chotijatun Nasriyah ◽  
Amanda Marselin

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with multiple aetiologies characterized by an increase in blood glucose levels exceeding normal limits. The world health organization predicts an increase in people with DM2 in Indonesia from 8.4 million to 21.3 million in 2030. Diabetes mellitus is one of the ninth main causes of decreased life expectancy, so it will greatly affect the quality of life of a person suffering from DM. Several factors that affect the quality of life of DM patients include age, gender, length of suffering, complications, education, marital status, level of compliance and occupation.Methods: This type of research is descriptive research with total sampling and obtained a sample of 26 respondents. Measurement of quality of life using the SF-36 instrument then the results were analysed using the chi square test to see the relationship between the factors that affect the quality of life.Results: The results obtained statistically that the complication factor (p=0.189) and the control frequency factor (p=0.596) did not significantly affect the quality of life. While the level of education statistically (p=0.006) affects the quality of life of DM patients.Conclusions: The results of the statistical study between complication factors and the frequency of control on the quality of life of DM patients showed no significant relationship. Meanwhile, the education level factor, both statistically and clinically, showed that there was a significant relationship with the quality of life of DM patients.


Author(s):  
Hadi Tehrani ◽  
Mahbobeh Nejatian ◽  
Alireza Jafari

Abstract Objectives The seeking and use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) modalities by people to treat mental disorders has increased and it is necessary for psychologists to have the necessary information in this field. This study aims to evaluate the use and perception of CAM by Iranian psychologists. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 psychologists selected by the census in 2019. Data collection tools consisted of four sections of the demographic section, the CAM questionnaire for psychologists, awareness of CAM, and use of CAM. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire were confirmed. Results The mean (standard deviation) scores of attitude and educational needs were 40.45 (11.36) and 33.93 (5.96), respectively. Only 19.25% of psychologists had sufficient knowledge of CAM, and most of them (56.34%) reported that there is an educational need for CAM. In this study, 64% of psychologists used CAM for themselves. There was a significant relationship between the attitude toward CAM modalities and the suggestion of CAM to the clients (p=0.025). There was also a significant relationship between the use of CAM by psychologists and the suggestion of these modalities to their clients (p<0.001). Conclusions Psychologists had not sufficient awareness about CAM and had a moderate attitude. Most of the psychologists reported that there is educational need for CAM. Therefore, it is necessary to design and implement appropriate training courses for psychologists toward CAM modalities.


Author(s):  
Ken N Falculan ◽  

This study was conducted to determine the attributes of Sin Tax Law on the buying behaviors and academic performance of RSU students with smoking habits. It utilized the descriptive method of research in analyzing data and it uses the purposive sampling technique to determine the attributes of sin tax law to the buying behaviors and academic performance of students. Results drawn were number of students who smoked are between ages of 18-19 years old. Most of the respondents are male. Males smoked cigarettes more frequently than female. Majority of the respondents had a general weighted average of 1.75- 2.25. Respondents are aware of on the Sin Tax Law an act restructuring the excise tax on alcohol and tobacco products. The Law significantly affect the buying behavior of the respondents. The prevalence of smoking among college students decreases. Level of awareness of students on Sin Tax Law has significant relationship with their buying behaviors. In addition, the academic performance of the students is not affected by the level of awareness, buying behavior and smoking habits. The implementation of this law must be strictly imposed by the local government and the academe to help in decreasing or even stopping in consumption of cigarettes among college students and to all smokers in the community.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
pp. 249-252
Author(s):  
Yegor Pashchenko ◽  
Daniel Clausing ◽  
Elizabeth Ablah ◽  
Hayrettin Okut ◽  
Georges Elhomsy

Introduction: Glycemic control is associated with better health outcomes among patients with diabetes. No previous research has examined the relationship between knowledge of one’s insulin dose and glycemic control. This study sought to determine if patients who accurately recalled their insulin dose achieved better glycemic control than patients who could not remember their dose. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 106 patients. Data were collected during patients’ appointments at two endocrinology clinics in Wichita, Kansas from May 29, 2018 to February 15, 2019. Adequate glycemic control was defined as an HbA1c of less than 7.5%.  A multiple logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with glycemic control.    Results: Of the 109 patients asked to participate, 105 agreed to participate in the study. About half (45%, n = 48) were male. Patients’ mean age was 50 years (SD = 17). Seventy-seven percent (n = 81) were overweight (body mass index (BMI) of 25 to 29.9) or obese (BMI >30). Patients who correctly stated their insulin dose had a mean Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 6.9% (SD = 0.98), whereas those who incorrectly stated their dose had a mean HbA1c of 9.5% (SD = 1.9; p <0.0001).   Conclusions: There was a significant relationship between knowledge of one’s insulin dose and adequate glycemic control.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rajib Kumar Dey ◽  
Shanooha Mansoor ◽  
Abdullah Isneen Hilmy ◽  
Sheena Moosa ◽  
Shiraany Abdul Rahman ◽  
...  

Abstract Background and objectives: Researchers are exploring the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, vaccination and the challenges faced by healthcare authorities. However less focus is being paid towards the impact of COVID-19 on mental health of the patients. This study is a cross-sectional study, measuring the prevalence of emotional distress among patients with COVID-19 in the Maldivian population.Methods: This study was conducted in Maldivian nations above 18 of age with COVID-19 who were admitted in isolation facilities. Patients who were on treatment for any other chronic medical conditions, severe and critical COVID-19 disease were excluded. This study was conducted over a period of 2months by administering a local translated version of DASS21 questionnaire.Results: The total of 195 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 40 (CI at 95% 38 - 42) years. The respondents were 48.7% men and 51.3% women. Overall, 9% of patients with COVID-19 had depression while 23% of patients had anxiety and 12% of the patients had stress. There was a statistically significant relationship between gender and depression, anxiety and stress (p<0.01). Symptomatic cases had a significantly higher level of stress than asymptomatic patients (p<0.05), but no significant association was observed with symptomatic status and anxiety or depression.Interpretations & conclusion: The management of patients with COVID-19 should be multi-disciplinary with special focus on the mental wellbeing of our patients. We should aim to establish proper communication with the patients in order to identify emotional distress and provide appropriate mental health care.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Paula Ibáñez de Aldecoa ◽  
Sanne de Wit ◽  
Sabine Tebbich

In a competitive and ever-changing world, the ability to generate outstanding ideas is crucial. However, this process can be impeded by factors such as fixation on ideas that emerged through prior experience. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the fixating effect of habits on creativity. To this end, healthy young adults were asked to generate alternative uses for items that differed in their frequency of use in the Alternative Uses Task (a standardized test for divergent thinking). We predicted that frequent past use of an item would lead to the formation of stimulus-response associations between the item and its most frequent use(s) and thereby hinder idea generation. Indeed, individuals were less flexible (but more fluent) in generating ideas for frequently used items than for unknown items. Additionally, we found that subjective automaticity of idea generation was negatively related with flexibility. Finally, we investigated whether individual differences in general habit tendency influence creativity, by relating performance on the Slips-of-Action task (an outcome devaluation paradigm extensively used in habit research) to performance on the Alternative Uses Task, the Candle Problem (a classic convergent thinking task) and two puzzles (non-conventional problem-solving tasks). While we did not find a significant relationship between habit tendency and the Alternative Uses Task or the Candle Problem scores, the tendency to rely on habits predicted probability to succeed and latency to solve one of the puzzles: less habit-prone participants were more likely to solve it and to do so faster. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the notion that habits can negatively impact creativity and opens promising future avenues of research in this field.


2021 ◽  
Vol 48 (2) ◽  
pp. 66-73
Author(s):  
Oladele S. Olatunya ◽  
Adefunke O. Babatola ◽  
Adewuyi T. Adeniyi ◽  
Adebukola B. Ajite ◽  
Isaac O. Oluwayemi ◽  
...  

Background: ‘Brought- in-dead’ (BID) refers to the demise of an individual before presentation to a health facility. This study assessed the pattern of paediatric BID cases seen at a tertiary health facility in southwest Nigeria. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was done at the Children Emergency Ward (CEW) of the hospital between January 2014 and December 2018. The patterns of BID cases and presumed causes of death were determined using a standardized checklist adapted from the WHO verbal autopsy instrument. Results: Ninety-eight BID cases were seen during the study, constituting 2.5% of total patients seen during the period. The median (IQR) age of cases was 24.0 (8.75 – 63.0) months and 72.4% were under-fives. Most had symptoms related to the haematologic (36.7%), respiratory (24.5%) or digestive (20.4%) systems. Severe anaemia 31(31.6%), gastroenteritis 19 (19.4) and aspiration 17 (17.3%) were the most common causes of death. The median (IQR) duration of illness before presentation was 3.0 (1.0 – 7.0) days but most presented from 4 – 7 days of illness. A significant relationship was found between the duration of illness and whether or not pre-hospital treatment was received (p < 0.0001). Unprescribed drugs purchased over the counter were the most commonly used treatment in 79.1% of cases (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: This study has highlighted the prevalence and pattern of paediatric BID in a tertiary health facility in southwest Nigeria and the factors that were associated with it. More efforts need to be geared towards community sensitization and pediatric health care to prevent factors drivingits menace.


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