effective area
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Hongting Niu ◽  
Hengshu Zhu ◽  
Ying Sun ◽  
Xinjiang Lu ◽  
Jing Sun ◽  

Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of car-hailing services, which provide a convenient approach for connecting passengers and local drivers using their personal vehicles. At the same time, the concern on passenger safety has gradually emerged and attracted more and more attention. While car-hailing service providers have made considerable efforts on developing real-time trajectory tracking systems and alarm mechanisms, most of them only focus on providing rescue-supporting information rather than preventing potential crimes. Recently, the newly available large-scale car-hailing order data have provided an unparalleled chance for researchers to explore the risky travel area and behavior of car-hailing services, which can be used for building an intelligent crime early warning system. To this end, in this article, we propose a Risky Area and Risky Behavior Evaluation System (RARBEs) based on the real-world car-hailing order data. In RARBEs, we first mine massive multi-source urban data and train an effective area risk prediction model, which estimates area risk at the urban block level. Then, we propose a transverse and longitudinal double detection method, which estimates behavior risk based on two aspects, including fraud trajectory recognition and fraud patterns mining. In particular, we creatively propose a bipartite graph-based algorithm to model the implicit relationship between areas and behaviors, which collaboratively adjusts area risk and behavior risk estimation based on random walk regularization. Finally, extensive experiments on multi-source real-world urban data clearly validate the effectiveness and efficiency of our system.

Marine Policy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 137 ◽  
pp. 104939
Estradivari ◽  
Muh. Firdaus Agung ◽  
Dedi Supriadi Adhuri ◽  
Sebastian C.A. Ferse ◽  
Ita Sualia ◽  

Pengpeng He ◽  
Tim Newson

Wind turbines are typically designed based on fatigue and serviceability limit states, but still require an accurate assessment of bearing capacity. Overconsolidated clay deposits in Canada often have a thin layer of crust with a relatively high undrained shear strength developed from weathering, desiccation, and geo-chemical processes. However, existing design methods only assess the bearing capacity using effective area and inclination factor without consideration of surficial crusts. This paper studies the undrained VHMT (vertical, horizontal, moment and torsional) failure envelope of circular foundations founded on a surficial crust underlain by a uniform soil with a zero-tension interface condition using finite element analysis. An analytical expression for the VHMT failure envelope is derived.

2022 ◽  
Vol 334 ◽  
pp. 04018
Gabriele G. Gagliardi ◽  
Carlotta Cosentini ◽  
Domenico Borello

The aim of this study is to develop composite Nafion/GO membranes, varying GO loading, to be used in a Unitized reversible fuel cell comparing its performance with the baseline Nafion. Water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC), tensile strength, and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis are discussed. The SEM analysis revealed how the GO is homogeneously disposed into the Nafion matrix. The addition of GO improves the membrane tensile strength while reducing the elongation ratio. Water uptake, IEC enhance with the increasing of GO content. Regarding fuel cell mode, the performance is analysed using a polarization curve on a MEA with an effective area of 9 cm2. The composite membrane demonstrated higher mechanical strength, enhanced water uptake so higher performance in fuel cell mode. Despite the power absorbed from the electrolysis is higher when using a composite membrane, the beneficial effect in FC mode resulted in a slightly higher round trip efficiency. The GO-Nafion membrane was not able to maintain its performance with increasing the operating time, so potentially leading to a lower lifetime than the Nafion bare.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 192
Tao Peng ◽  
Qiuhong Lin ◽  
Bingyan Li ◽  
Ani Luo ◽  
Qiang Cong ◽  

In this paper, the stress superposition method (SSM) is proposed to solve the stress distribution of regular polygon membranes. The stress-solving coefficient and the calculation formula of arbitrary point stress of regular polygon membrane are derived. The accuracy of the SSM for calculating stresses in regular polygonal membranes is verified by comparing the calculation results of the SSM with the finite element simulation results. This article is the first to propose a method to investigate the response of the arch height of the membrane curved edge to the membrane’s mechanical properties while keeping the effective area constant. It is found that the equivalent stress and the second principal stress at the midpoint of the membrane curved edge are effectively increased with the increase of the arch height of the curved edge. The second principal stress at the edge region of the membrane is relatively small, leading to the occurrence of wrinkles. When the stress at the midpoint of the curved edge is equal to that at the center of the membrane, the membrane plane attains the maximum stiffness and reduces the possibility of wrinkling at the edge.

2021 ◽  
pp. 147592172110602
Xiaoyong Zhou ◽  
Fubin Tu ◽  
Jiahui Wang ◽  
Qinggang Li

Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) has been widely used for detecting cementitious materials with one type of flaw. To extend the ERT for multi-flaws detection in a larger concrete plate, this paper develops a subdomain integration method. The adjacent driver pattern and absolute imaging scheme of ERT are adopted to reconstruct the inner electrical conductivity field of a concrete specimen which contains three different inclusions, namely, a copper bar, a piece of plexiglass, and a drop of saline solution. The feasibility of subdomain integration method for multiple flaws detection in cementitious materials is analyzed by theoretical analyses of the equipotential line density and the image quality evaluation indicator. The concrete specimen is divided into four, nine, and 16 subdomains for detection. The image reconstruction results obtained by the subdomain detection method are compared with each other, and with the results of a global detection method. Results indicate that the effective area of subdomain largely relies on the density of equipotential lines, as well as the measurement errors. Subdomain integration method is effective in detecting a relatively large cementitious component with multi-flaws.

Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 22
Shubham Shubham ◽  
Yoonho Seo ◽  
Vahid Naderyan ◽  
Xin Song ◽  
Anthony J. Frank Frank ◽  

Audio applications such as mobile phones, hearing aids, true wireless stereo earphones, and Internet of Things devices demand small size, high performance, and reduced cost. Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) capacitive microphones fulfill these requirements with improved reliability and specifications related to sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), distortion, and dynamic range when compared to their electret condenser microphone counterparts. We present the design and modeling of a semiconstrained polysilicon diaphragm with flexible springs that are simply supported under bias voltage with a center and eight peripheral protrusions extending from the backplate. The flexible springs attached to the diaphragm reduce the residual film stress effect more effectively compared to constrained diaphragms. The center and peripheral protrusions from the backplate further increase the effective area, linearity, and sensitivity of the diaphragm when the diaphragm engages with these protrusions under an applied bias voltage. Finite element modeling approaches have been implemented to estimate deflection, compliance, and resonance. We report an 85% increase in the effective area of the diaphragm in this configuration with respect to a constrained diaphragm and a 48% increase with respect to a simply supported diaphragm without the center protrusion. Under the applied bias, the effective area further increases by an additional 15% as compared to the unbiased diaphragm effective area. A lumped element model has been also developed to predict the mechanical and electrical behavior of the microphone. With an applied bias, the microphone has a sensitivity of −38 dB (ref. 1 V/Pa at 1 kHz) and an SNR of 67 dBA measured in a 3.25 mm ´ 1.9 mm ´ 0.9 mm package including an analog ASIC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 334
Andri Estining Sejati ◽  
I Gede Purwana Edi Saputra

The rampant land-use change in Konawe Selatan District and the uncontrolled use leads to disaster and environmental stability effect, consequently, mapping the area function is important for controlling land-use activities to reduce the risk of disaster. Therefore, this study aims to determine the direction, distribution, and effective area of the function of forests, settlements, and rice fields. This study used a regional survey with a quantitative approach. Base map data of administrative, slope class, soil type, rainfall, and land-use obtained from the regional planning agency and SAS Planet were used and analyzed with quantitative descriptive analysis overlayed with scoring. The result showed that the direction of area functions was dominated by limited production forests by 50.05% while the distribution of protected forest function was spread across 14 sub-districts with limited production forests in all sub-districts, production forests in 17 sub-districts, settlements in 21 sub-districts, and rice fields in 9 sub-districts. Furthermore, the effective area shows that all area functions are accordance with the directions, except for rice fields which took over the function of forest while the effective area controlled by the regional planning shows that all area functions need correction following the regulation of the Minister of Agriculture of Indonesia. Areas which do not accordance with the function need to be evaluated, hence, regional planning is required to be revised by the people's representative in Konawe Selatan. Keywords: Analysis; Forest; Rice field; Settlement; Mapping Copyright (c) 2021 Geosfera Indonesia and Department of Geography Education, University of Jember   This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share A like 4.0 International License

2021 ◽  
Khosrow Hosseini ◽  
Shahab Nayyer ◽  
Mehran Kheirkhahan ◽  
Sayed-Farhad Mousavi

Abstract Modifying the river course for flood control, prevention of bed erosion, bank protection, and the regulation of river width are among the goals of spur dikes incorporation. The common spur dikes have simple (I), L and T geometrical shapes. The present research has been conducted to reduce the scour depth in front of the spurs dikes and improve the sedimentation conditions for the LTT combination of spur dikes in series by investigating different combinations of slots in the body of the spur dike; using numerical methods. The slot dimension was taken equal to 10% of the effective area of the spur dike body. Finally, the (LS-W-Wi, TS-W, TS-W-Wi) combination contained the slots in the web and wing of the first and third spur dike also the slot at the web of the middle spur dike was found as the best combination of slots. This combination conducted to reduce the scour depth about 6.8% and increase the deposition about 52% comparing by the spurs dikes without slots. Reducing the scour depth and increasing the sedimentation rate of materials between the spurs dikes. Also, the maximum scour depth decreases up to 20%. The results revealed that the presence of slots in spur dike structures and their different positions have complicated and considerable influences on the form and morphology of the erodible bed which could be the topic for further researches.

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