This paper investigates the formation and propagation of defects in the heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystal diamond with a thick film achieving 500 µm on Ir (001)/Al2O3 substrate. The growth of diamond follows the Volmer–Weber mode, i.e., initially shows the islands and subsequently coalesces to closed films. The films’ strain imposed by the substrate gradually relaxed as the film thickness increased. It was found that defects are mainly located at the diamond/Ir interface and are then mainly propagated along the  direction from the nucleation region. Etching pits along the  direction formed by H2/O2 plasma treatment were used to show defect distribution at the diamond/Ir/Al2O3 interface and in the diamond bulk, which revealed the reduction of etching pit density in diamond thick-film surface. These results show the evident impact of the thickness on the heteroepitaxially grown diamond films, which is of importance for various device applications.
A lower dislocation density substrate is essential for realizing high performance in single-crystal diamond electronic devices. The in-situ tungsten-incorporated homoepitaxial diamond by introducing tungsten hexacarbonyl has been proposed. A 3 × 3 × 0.5 mm3 high-pressure, high-temperature (001) diamond substrate was cut into four pieces with controlled experiments. The deposition of tungsten-incorporated diamond changed the atomic arrangement of the original diamond defects so that the propagation of internal dislocations could be inhibited. The SEM images showed that the etching pits density was significantly decreased from 2.8 × 105 cm−2 to 2.5 × 103 cm−2. The reduction of XRD and Raman spectroscopy FWHM proved that the double-layer tungsten-incorporated diamond has a significant effect on improving the crystal quality of diamond bulk. These results show the evident impact of in situ tungsten-incorporated growth on improving crystal quality and inhibiting the dislocations propagation of homoepitaxial diamond, which is of importance for high-quality diamond growth.
Synthetic single crystal diamond grown using the chemical vapor deposition technique constitutes an extraordinary candidate material for monitoring radiation in extreme environments. However, under certain conditions, a progressive creation of space charge regions within the crystal can lead to the deterioration of charge collection efficiency. This phenomenon is called polarization and represents one of the major drawbacks associated with using this type of device. In this study, we explore different techniques to mitigate the degradation of signal due to polarization. For this purpose, two different diamond detectors are characterized by the ion beam-induced charge technique using a nuclear microprobe, which utilizes MeV energy ions of different penetration depths to probe charge transport in the detectors. The effect of polarization is analyzed by turning off the bias applied to the detector during continuous or discontinuous irradiation, and also by alternating bias polarity. In addition, the beneficial influence of temperature for reducing the effect of polarization is also observed. Finally, the effect of illuminating the detector with light is also measured. Our experimental results indicate that heating a detector or turning off the bias, and then applying it during continuous irradiation can be used as satisfactory methods for recovering the CCE value close to that of a prepolarized state. In damaged regions, illumination with white light can be used as a standard method to suppress the strength of polarization induced by holes.
On a semi-open holder, the homoepitaxial lateral growth of single-crystal diamond (SCD) was carried out via microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). By tuning and optimizing two different structures of...
In this study, the synergistic impact of boron, oxygen and titanium on growing large single-crystal diamonds was studied using different concentrations of B2O3 in a solvent-carbon system under 5.5-5.7 GPa and 1300-1500 ℃. The study found that it was difficult for boron atoms to enter the crystal when boron and oxygen impurities were doped using B2O3 without the addition of Ti. However, a high boron content was achieved in the doped diamonds that were synthesised with the addition of Ti. Additionally, boron-oxygen complexes were found on the surface of the crystal, and oxygen-related impurities appeared in the crystal interior when Ti added in the FeNi-C system. The results showed that the introduction of Ti in the synthesis cavity could effectively control the amount of boron and oxygen in the crystal. This not only has important scientific significance for understanding the synergistic influence of boron, oxygen and titanium on the growth of diamond in the earth, but also for the preparation of high-concentration boron or oxygen containing semiconductor diamond technologies.
PDC drill bits are the primary drilling tools for oil and gas in most of formations. In a PDC drill bit, PDC cutters are key cutting components to engage with these formations. However, there is often a big challenge for today's PDC drill bits when drilling very hard and abrasive formation. The main weakness in the PDC cutter is due to the unavoidable use of metallic catalyst which is used to bond the diamond grains in the PDC cutters. The thermal expansion of the metallic catalysts resulting from high frictional heat at the cutter/rock interface during drilling operation is higher than that of diamond grains, causing the thermal stress between the metallic catalyst and diamond grain which can break the PDC cutter. Therefore, development of catalyst-free PDC cutters would be a game-changing technology for drill bit by delivering significant increase in performance, durability, and drilling economics. In this study, an innovative ultra-high pressure and ultra-high temperature technology was developed with ultra-high pressures up to 35 GPa, much higher than current PDC cutter technology. We report a new type of catalyst-free PDC cutting material, synthesized under one of conditions using ultra-high pressure of 16 GPa. The new material breaks all single-crystal-diamond indenters in Vickers hardness testing which sets a new world record as the hardest diamond material as of today. Also, the material shows the highest thermal stability in the family of diamonds in air at 1,200°C, which is about 600 °C higher than current PDC cutters. As a consequence of these superior properties, this new material exhibited industry-recorded wear resistance, which is four times of that of current PDC cutters. All of these achievements demonstrated a breakthrough in PDC cutter technology development and presented a feasibility for the goal of "One-Run-To-TD" game-changing drilling technology.