Breeding Season
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Author(s):  
Kelsey E. Fisher ◽  
Steven P. Bradbury

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 487-488
Author(s):  
Stephan Wildeus ◽  
Tom Murphy ◽  
Dahlia O’Brien

Abstract Objectives were to evaluate ewe performance under an accelerated, pasture-lambing system. Barbados Blackbelly (n = 85) and St. Croix ewes (n = 91) were exposed to rams of their own breed (pure) or Dorset (terminal) in November (2012 and 2014), July (2013 and 2015), and March (2014 and 2016). Traits considered were fertility (i.e., ewes lambing/ewes exposed; n = 670) and number of lambs born (NLB), number of lambs weaned (NLW), and total 65 d adjusted litter weaning weight (LWW; n = 548 each). Data were analyzed with fixed effects of ewe age (1, 1.5, 2 yr, or ≥ 2.5 yr), breed, mating system (pure vs terminal), mating month-year, and the mating system x mating month-year interaction and a random ewe effect. Fertility was greater for Barbados Blackbelly than St. Croix ewes (0.88 vs 0.73; P < 0.01) but ewe breed did not affect any other trait (P ≥ 0.06). The mating system x mating month-year interaction effect impacted all traits (P ≤ 0.03) except NLB (P = 0.09) and performance between mating systems was compared within mating month. Fertility was greater for pure than terminal mated ewes in November (0.96 vs 0.85) and July (0.94 vs 0.53; P ≤ 0.01). Following July mating, both NLB and NLW were greater for pure than terminal mated ewes (1.69 vs 1.37 lambs and 1.43 vs 1.11 lambs, respectively; P < 0.01). However, LWW was greater for terminal than pure mated ewes after November (18.0 vs 15.7 kg) and March mating (18.1 vs 14.2 kg; P ≤ 0.02). Using a terminal sire in landrace hair sheep under accelerated mating generally reduced fertility, NLB, and NLW but improved LWW. The strategic use of terminal sire mating should be considered just during breeding season, or the use of alternative sire breeds should be evaluated.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Lambert ◽  
S. Carlisle ◽  
I. Cain ◽  
A. Douse ◽  
L. Watt

AbstractRodent predators are implicated in declines of seabird populations, and removing introduced rats, often, but not always, results in the expected conservation gains. Here we investigated the relationship between small mammal (Norway rat, wood mouse and pygmy shrew) abundance and Manx shearwater breeding success on the island of Rum, Scotland, and tested whether localised rodenticide treatments (to control introduced Norway rats) increased Manx shearwater breeding success. We found that Manx shearwater breeding success was negatively correlated with late summer indices of abundance for rats and mice, but not shrews. On its own, rat activity was a poor predictor of Manx shearwater breeding success. Rat activity increased during the shearwater breeding season in untreated areas but was supressed in areas treated with rodenticides. Levels of mouse (and shrew) activity increased in areas treated with rodenticides (likely in response to lower levels of rat activity) and Manx shearwater breeding success was unchanged in treated areas (p < 0.1). The results suggest that, unexpectedly, negative effects from wood mice can substitute those of Norway rats and that both species contributed to negative impacts on Manx shearwaters. Impacts were intermittent however, and further research is needed to characterise rodent population trends and assess the long-term risks to this seabird colony. The results have implications for conservation practitioners planning rat control programmes on islands where multiple rodent species are present.


2021 ◽  
Vol 135 (2) ◽  
pp. 181-185
Author(s):  
Theodore N. Bailey ◽  
Brian N. Bailey

Information is lacking on the behaviour of free-roaming Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) during the breeding season, likely because they are rarely observed in the wild. Other wild solitary felid males compete with each other to mate with promiscuous females. However, the behavioural context or sequence of this competition among wild male Canada Lynx remains unreported. We describe the behaviour of three adult wild lynx during the breeding season. We observed the first two lynx together; an adult male and an inferred adult female remained together non agonistically for nearly 2 h before they were interrupted by another adult male. Our observation of interaction between the two males includes agonistic behaviours, vocalizations, scent marking, fighting, and a long-distance (1.7-km) expulsion of the intruding male lynx by the first male. These observations add to the limited information available on the social ecology of lynx during the breeding season.


Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 2800
Author(s):  
Ramanathan K. Kasimanickam ◽  
Vanmathy R. Kasimanickam ◽  
Madison L. McCann

Nutrition imprinting carries consequences across generations. The effect of 55% vs. 65% of mature cow body weight (MBW; 545 kg) at breeding on the reproductive performance of heifers and their offspring was investigated. Angus-cross dam heifers were randomly fed to attain 55% (n = 1622) vs. 65% (n = 1578) of MBW, and offspring (F1) heifers born to dam heifers [55% (n = 1285) vs. 65% (n = 1324)] were fed to attain 65% of MBW. Bodyweight and reproductive indices were recorded throughout the study. In dam heifers, puberty (44% vs. 53%), breeding season pregnancy (86.4% vs. 90.6%) and 21-day calving rates (55.2% vs. 65.4%) did vary, but dystocia rate (8.7% vs. 9.0%) did not differ between 55% and 65% MBW groups. Puberty (49.2% vs. 58.2%), breeding season pregnancy (87.2% vs. 92.8%) and 21-day calving rates (53.8% vs. 64.1%) did differ (p < 0.05), but dystocia rate (8.4 vs. 9.2%) did not differ between F1 heifer groups. In conclusion, 55% of MBW at breeding negatively affected the reproductive performance of heifers and its offspring heifers. The recommendation is to feed heifers a balanced diet to reach 65% of MBW at breeding with consideration of production traits.


Author(s):  
Carley Schacter ◽  
◽  
Sarah Peterson ◽  
Mark Herzog ◽  
C. Alex Hartman ◽  
...  

Availability of wetlands with low salinities during the breeding season can influence waterfowl reproductive success and population recruitment. Salinities as low as 2 ppt (3.6 mScm–1) can impair duckling growth and influence behavior, with mortality occurring above 9 ppt (14.8 mScm–1). We used satellite imagery to quantify the amount of available water, and sampled surface water salinity at Grizzly Island, in the brackish Suisun Marsh, at three time-periods during waterfowl breeding (April, May, July) over 4 years (2016–2019). More water was available and salinity was lower during wetter years (2017, 2019) than during drier years (2016, 2018), and the amount of water in wetlands decreased 73%–86% from April to July. Across all time-periods and years, the majority (64%–100%) of wetland habitat area had salinities above what has been shown to negatively affect ducklings (> 2 ppt), and up to 42% of wetland area had salinities associated with duckling mortality (> 9 ppt). During peak duckling production in May, 81%–95% of available water had salinity above 2 ppt, and 5%–21% was above 9 ppt. In May of the driest year (2016), only 0.5 km2 of low-salinity water (< 2 ppt) was available to ducklings in the study area, compared to 2.6 km2 in May of the wettest year (2017). Private duck clubs own the majority of wetland habitat at Grizzly Island and consistently had a greater percentage of land flooded during summer than did publicly owned wetlands, but private wetlands generally had higher salinities than public wetlands, likely because they draw from higher-salinity water sources. By July, few wetlands remained flooded, and most had salinities high enough to impair duckling growth and survival. Local waterfowl populations would benefit from management practices that provide fresher water during peak duckling production in May and retain more water through July.


Author(s):  
C. Alex Hartman ◽  
◽  
Joshua Ackerman ◽  
Carley Schacter ◽  
Mark Herzog ◽  
...  

Availability of wetlands with low salinities during the breeding season can influence waterfowl reproductive success and population recruitment. Salinities as low as 2 ppt (3.6 mScm–1) can impair duckling growth and influence behavior, with mortality occurring above 9 ppt (14.8 mScm–1). We used satellite imagery to quantify the amount of available water, and sampled surface water salinity at Grizzly Island, in the brackish Suisun Marsh, at three time-periods during waterfowl breeding (April, May, July) over 4 years (2016–2019). More water was available and salinity was lower during wetter years (2017, 2019) than during drier years (2016, 2018), and the amount of water in wetlands decreased 73%–86% from April to July. Across all time-periods and years, the majority (64%–100%) of wetland habitat area had salinities above what has been shown to negatively affect ducklings (> 2 ppt), and up to 42% of wetland area had salinities associated with duckling mortality (> 9 ppt). During peak duckling production in May, 81%–95% of available water had salinity above 2 ppt, and 5%–21% was above 9 ppt. In May of the driest year (2016), only 0.5 km2 of low-salinity water (< 2 ppt) was available to ducklings in the study area, compared to 2.6 km2 in May of the wettest year (2017). Private duck clubs own the majority of wetland habitat at Grizzly Island and consistently had a greater percentage of land flooded during summer than did publicly owned wetlands, but private wetlands generally had higher salinities than public wetlands, likely because they draw from higher-salinity water sources. By July, few wetlands remained flooded, and most had salinities high enough to impair duckling growth and survival. Local waterfowl populations would benefit from management practices that provide fresher water during peak duckling production in May and retain more water through July.


Author(s):  
Muhammed Enes İnanç ◽  
Şükrü Güngör ◽  
Emir Gül ◽  
Barış Atalay Uslu ◽  
Ayhan Ata

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gallic acid (GA) on frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa. Four Honamli goat bucks were used at their breeding season, and ejaculates were collected by an electroejaculator. Mixed semen was divided into the following four groups: control (0 mM), low (L; 1 mM), medium (M; 2 mM), and high (H; 4 mM) concentration of GA. All the groups were frozen and thawed in a water bath for spermatological evaluation. The lowest motility was observed in the control group (47.60 ± 5.70%) (P < 0.05), while the highest viability (62.45 ± 1.68%), plasma membrane and acrosome integrity (44.81 ± 4.57%), and high mitochondrial membrane potential (35.96 ± 2.50%) were observed in the low GA group (P < 0.05). Also, the lowest hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS +) value was found in the high GA group (47.60 ± 4.82%) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementing a low concentration (1 mM) of GA to the Tris-based semen extender had a positive effect on spermatological parameters after freeze-thawing of Honamli goat semen. Further studies should be continued in other species with different doses and combinations using commercial and/or homemade semen extenders.


Author(s):  
Mubashir Ali Rather ◽  
Ambreen Hamadani ◽  
Syed Shanaz ◽  
Safeer Alam ◽  
S. Nazir

Background: Kashmir Merino is a very important synthetic sheep breed of J and K. It is widely adopted across the Valley. It is an important source of income for the poor and marginalized farmers. An attempt was made to understand the management practices adopted by farmers of Budgam in rearing of Kashmir Merino sheep. Methods: A survey was undertaken in Budgam district understand the management practices used by farmers for rearing Kashmir Merino sheep. Result: Majority of the sheep farmers (68.42) housed Kashmir Merino sheep in Pucca house made of brick structures reinforced with either cement or mud whereas only (31.58%) housed sheep in Katcha houses. Breeding season ranges from April to May and August to December. Majority of the respondents (75.00%) reported autumn season as the main breeding season and only 25% reported spring as main breeding season. The sheep farmer was either having in possession small or marginal land holding. Sheep were reared on semi-intensive feeding systems during early spring and late autumn, intensive system during winter from December to April and extensive system from May to November. The vaccination against infectious diseases, dozing against prevalent parasites and treatment as per morbidity was carried out by expert veterinarians of Department of sheep Husbandry. Poor economic and low technical proficiency are main hurdles for farmers of Budgam to have good housing facilities to manage the breed. Management has significant effect on performance of sheep.


2021 ◽  
pp. 303-315
Author(s):  
I. Solís ◽  
J. J. Sanz ◽  
L. Imba ◽  
E. Álvarez ◽  
E. Barba

The rise of temperatures due to global warming is related to a lengthening of the breeding season in many bird species. This allows more pairs to attempt two clutches within the breeding season, thus finishing their breeding activity later in the season and therefore potentially overlapping these with post–breeding moult. We tested whether this occurred in two Spanish great tit Parus major populations. The proportion of pairs laying second clutches increased from 1 % to 32 % over the study period in one of the populations (Sagunto, 1995–2019), while it did not change in the other (Quintos, 2006–2019; mean 5 %). We did not find any temporal trend for moult start date of late–breeding birds in any population. The proportion of individuals of both sexes that overlapped moult and breeding increased in Sagunto. For this latter population, sex and age, but not clutch type, contributed to the variability in the probability of overlapping in late–breeding individuals, this being higher for first–year males and lower for older females.


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