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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 841-847
Meijiao Du ◽  
Zhengmei Wang ◽  
Geng Su ◽  
Yunxia Zhou ◽  
Chuan Luo

This study aims to analyze the role of mTOR inhibitor on the expression of miR-211 in rat brain tissue and the biological effect of miR-211 in attenuating seizure. Rats were randomly divided into four groups, and the number of seizures and the duration of single seizure were observed within 24 hours after intervention. The level of miR-211 in brain tissue was detected by RT qPCR, the apoptosis of nerve cells was assessed by TUNEL staining, the level of immune cells was detected by flow cytometry, and the level of serum inflammatory factors was determined by ELISA. The number of seizures and the duration of single seizure in the three groups treated by rapamycin within 24 hours were lower than those in the control group, and the symptom relief in group C was the best. After treatment, the expression level of miR-211 in the brain tissue of epileptic rats increased. TUNEL staining showed that neuronal apoptosis was obvious in epileptic rats. The anti apoptotic ability of group C was the most significant, followed by group D and group B. Compared with group A, the levels of CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD25+ cells in brain tissue of group C were decreased, while the levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were lower in group C than those in control. In group C (n = 5), the levels of CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD25+ cells were elevated, and the levels of immune related cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ were higher than those of rats without miR-211 inhibition. mTOR inhibitors can improve the local immune microenvironment, reduce the release of inflammatory factors, and finally decrease the frequency and duration of seizures by up regulating the level of miR-211 in rat brain tissue.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 1046-1052
Jianmin Zhang ◽  
Qianwen Zhu ◽  
Xingnan Wang ◽  
Jian Wang

Background: Previous studies have shown that Donepezil has therapeutic effects on vascular dementia (VD). PI3K/AKT involves in oxidative stress injury and cell apoptosis. This study investigated whether Donepezil affects the neurological function and apoptosis of VD mice via PI3K/AKT signaling. Methods: Mice were assigned into Sham group, VD group, VD+Donepezil groupfollowed by analysis of mice learning and memory ability by Water maze test, p-AKT expression by Western blot, Caspase-3 activity, MDA content, SOD activity and GSH-Px in hippocampus. HT22 cells were cultured and separated into control group, I-R group and I-R+Donepezil group followed by measuring p-AKT level, ROS content and apoptosis. Results: Learning and memory abilities of VD group mice were significantly decreased, Caspase-3 activity and MDA in brain tissue were significantly increased, along with decreased SOD activity, GSH-Px and p-AKT level. Donepezil treatment can significantly improve VD mice learning and memory ability, reduce Caspase-3 activity and MDA in brain tissue, increase SOD activity, GSH-Px and p-AKT level. In vitro, I-R treatment significantly induced apoptosis of HT22 cells, increased ROS production and decreased p-AKT level. Donepezil treatment could up-regulate p-AKT in HT22 cells and reduce apoptosis and ROS production in HT22 cells. Conclusion: Donepezil improves the function of brain nerve in VD mice through regulating PI3K/AKT pathway, thus reducing oxidative stress injury and apoptosis of brain nerve cells.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Umar ◽  
M. Hussain ◽  
S. K. Maloney

Abstract Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.

Sowmya N. Sundaresh ◽  
John D. Finan ◽  
Benjamin S. Elkin ◽  
Andrew V. Basilio ◽  
Guy M. McKhann ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Shuaidong Mao ◽  
Huan Huang ◽  
Xianzheng Chen

Objective. To explore the effect of long noncoding RNA H19 (lncRNA H19) on brain injury in rats following experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods. Rat ICH model was established with type IV collagenase. The neurological function scores were evaluated, and the water content in brain tissue was measured. The nerve injury indexes, inflammatory factors, and oxidative stress indexes were also measured. Moreover, the expression of lncRNA H19 was determined by qRT-PCR, and Western blot detected NF-κB pathway-related protein expression. Results. Compared with the sham group, the neurological function scores, the water content in brain tissue, and levels of injury indicators myelin basic protein (MBP), S-100B, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in the ICH rats were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ROS, and MDA were significantly increased, but the levels of SOD were significantly decreased. In addition, the expression of lncRNA H19 in the brain tissue in the ICH group was significantly higher than that in the sham group. After further interference with lncRNA H19 expression (sh-H19 group), the levels of all the above indicators were reversed and the neurological damage was improved. Western blot results showed that the expression of NF-κBp65 and IKKβ was significantly higher, and IκBα expression was lower in the perivascular hematoma tissue in the ICH group compared with the sham group. Compared with the sh-NC group, NF-κBp65 and IKKβ expression were significantly lower and IκBα was significantly higher in the sh-H19 group. Conclusion. lncRNA H19 exacerbated brain injury in rats with ICH by promoting neurological impairment, brain edema, and releasing inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. This may be related to the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Limei Peng ◽  
Quan Zhou ◽  
Yu Wu ◽  
Xiaoli Cao ◽  
Zili Lv ◽  

Abstract Background Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a rare central nervous system infection caused by the Balamuthia mandrillaris or Acanthamoeba species. Diagnosis is challenging because of the non-specific clinical presentation, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and radiological features. There is no effective treatment for GAE to date. Case presentation A 54-year-old male was admitted to hospital after experiencing acute onset of numbness and weakness on his left limb. Due to the initial consideration of intracranial tumor, surgical removal of the right parietal lesion was performed. However, the patient had a headache accompanied by diplopia, difficulty walking and a new lesion was found in the left occipital-parietal lobe two weeks after the first operation. High-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) detected the presence of high copy reads of the B. mandrillaris genome sequence in the patient’s blood, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissue. Pathological investigation of the brain tissue showed granulomatous changes and amoebic trophozoite scattered around blood vessels under high magnification. The patient was re-operated due to developing progressive confusion caused by subfalcine herniation of the left cerebral hemisphere. The lesions of the right parietal lobe were obviously decreasing in size after the first surgery, and the lesions of the left occipital lobe and the sunfalcine herniation didn’t ameliorate two months after the second surgery. The patient was transferred to local hospital for continuous treatment with sulfamethoxazole and azithromycin. After five months of the second surgery, the patient showed good recovery with mild headache. Conclusions This is the first report of a patient with B. mandrillaris encephalitis initially confirmed by NGS and have experienced two excisions, responding favorably to the combination of surgeries and medications. Early surgical resection of intracranial lesions combined with drug treatment may offer the chance of a cure.

Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 16
Juraj Piestansky ◽  
Andrea Forgacsova ◽  
Dominika Olesova ◽  
Jaroslav Galba ◽  
Peter Mikus ◽  

Neurotransmitters (NT) are widely distributed in the central nervous system. These molecules are important for many physiological processes and the function of the immune system. Imbalance of NT are linked to numerous neurological disorders and diseases, including tauopathies. Here, a targeted approach based on on-line combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was validated and applied to the quantitative analysis of nine NT (acetylcholine, choline, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, pyroglutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid), tryptophan and its metabolite kynurenine in brain tissue samples of a rat model for tauopathy. The applied analytical method was characterized by excellent validation parameters for all analytes, such as limits of detection in the range of 0.01–1.70 µg/mL, regression coefficients of the calibration curves ≥ 0.9946, intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as coefficient of variation in the range of 0.6–11.9% and 0.6–14.4%, and accuracy in the range of 87.6–107.1% and 87.2–119.6%. Our analytical approach led to the identification of increased levels of choline and γ-aminobutyric acid in pons, and elevated concentration levels of pyroglutamate in medulla oblongata. These findings indicate that NT could play a valuable role in the study and clarification of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xin Feng ◽  
Yuelin Bi ◽  
Jiaqi Wang ◽  
Tianyi Li ◽  
Gengyuan Yu ◽  

Background: Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po Decoction (ZZHPD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, is clinically used to treat insomnia and depression. The analysis strategy based on the concept of co-decoction of TCM is helpful to analyse the effective substances of TCM formula in depth.Aim of the study: This manuscript intends to take ZZHPD as a model sample to explore the phenomenon of co-decoction of complex formula in the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology, data analysis, and molecular docking.Materials and methods: In the current research, an innovative LC-MS method has been established to study the active ingredients in ZZHPD, and to identify the ingredients absorbed into the blood and brain tissues of mice. And molecular docking was used to study the binding pattern and affinities of known compounds of the brain tissue toward insomnia related proteins.Results: Based on new processing methods and analysis strategies, 106 chemical components were identified in ZZHPD, including 28 blood components and 18 brain components. Then, by comparing the different compounds in the co-decoction and single decoction, it was surprisingly found that 125 new ingredients were produced during the co-decoction, 2 of which were absorbed into the blood and 1 of which was absorbed into brain tissue. Ultimately, molecular docking studies showed that 18 brain components of ZZHPD had favourable binding conformation and affinity with GABA, serotonin and melatonin receptors. The docking results of GABRA1 with naringenin and hesperidin, HCRTR1 with naringenin-7-O-glucoside, poncirenin and genipin 1-gentiobioside, and luteolin with SLC6A4, GLO1, MAOB and MTNR1A may clarify the mechanism of action of ZZHPD in treating insomnia and depression.Conclusion: Our study may provide new ideas for further exploring the effective substances in ZZHPD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 66 (1) ◽  
Rong Tian ◽  
Gengsheng Mao

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Ghrelin on the polarization of microglia/ macrophages after cerebral ischemia (CI) in rats. 60 wild-type SD rats were randomly divided into sham group, CI group, CI+Ghrelin group, 20 rats in each group. The modified Longa suture method was used to establish the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. Before surgery, Ghrelin was injected subcutaneously (100μg/kg, twice a day) for 4 consecutive weeks. After modeling, neurological function scores were performed with three behavioral experiments: mNSS score, Corner test, and Rotarod test, to evaluate the recovery of neurological function after Ghrelin treatment. At the same time, the brain tissues were collected and stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to detect the cerebral infarct volume. RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in the ischemic brain tissue, and the TUNEL staining was used to detect the apoptosis of brain tissue. Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of M1 type microglia/macrophages which were isolated by trypsin digestion of fresh cerebral cortex. Then, the Western blotting and immunofluorescence method were used to detect the phosphorylation level of AKT (P-AKT) and AKT. Compared with the CI group, the neurological function of the rats in the CI+Ghrelin group was dramatically improved, and the cerebral infarction area was dramatically reduced. At the same time, the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in the ischemic brain tissue of rats in the CI+Ghrelin group decreased, and the apoptotic cells in the brain tissue also decreased. Compared with the CI treatment group, the activation of M1 microglia/macrophages in the cortex of the ischemic side of the infarct and the peri-infarct area in the CI+Ghrelin group was dramatically inhibited. At the same time, the ratio of P-AKT/AKT of the brain tissue in the CI+Ghrelin group was dramatically higher than that of the CI group. In the rat cerebral ischemia model, Ghrelin can promote the repair of brain damage and the recovery of neurological function after ischemia. Its mechanism may be related to activating AKT to selectively reduce M1 microglia/macrophages, reducing inflammation and cell apoptosis in brain tissue.

2022 ◽  
Vol 66 (1) ◽  
Zhen Wang ◽  
Xiaoyan Du ◽  
Daoyang Yu ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Gaoen Ma ◽  

Stroke is a brain system disease with a high fatality rate and disability rate. About 80% of strokes are ischemic strokes. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) caused by ischemic stroke seriously affects the prognosis of stroke patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of sufentanil (SUF) on CIRI model rats. We used middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to make the CIRI model in rats and monitored region cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to ensure that blood flow was blocked and recanalized. We used ELISA and RT-PCR to detect the expression of inflammatory factors in rat serum and brain tissue. In addition, we detected the expression of metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP9 and collagen IV in brain tissues and performed Evans blue (EB) assay to determine the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Finally, we clarified the apoptosis of brain tissue through the TUNEL staining and the detection of caspase3, Bcl2 and Bax. Various concentrations of SUF, especially 5, 10 and 25 μg/kg of SUF, all alleviated the infarct size, neurological function and brain edema of MCAO rats. SUF pretreatment also effectively reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines in MCAO rats, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In addition, SUF also inhibited MMP2 and MMP9 and promoted the expression of collagen IV, indicating that SUF attenuated the destruction of the BBB. SUF also inhibited caspase3 and Bax rats and promoted Bcl2 in MCAO rats, thus inhibiting cell apoptosis. SUF pretreatment effectively improved the neurological function and cerebral infarction of MCAO rats, inhibited excessive inflammation in rats, protected the BBB, and inhibited cell apoptosis in brain tissue.

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