array design
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2022 ◽  
Cleofás Segura-Gómez ◽  
Ángel Palomares-Caballero ◽  
Pablo Padilla

This paper presents a vertically stacked SIW antenna array that enables different array configurations with the minimum number of SIW layers. This achievement lies in the modular feature offered by the proposed design. Specifically, 4 distinct array configurations can be produced with only 3 different design of SIW layers. Depending on the number of SIW layers employed in the stacked antenna, the directivity in the E-plane of radiation is modified. To obtain an equal and in-phase power distribution among the array elements, H- and E-plane corporate feeding networks are efficiently implemented in each array configuration. Array configurations of 1, 2, 4 and 8 radiating layers are offered by the proposed modular array, where each radiating layer is formed by 8 H-plane SIW horn antennas. The simulated directivity for the array configurations ranges from 15.8 dBi to 23.8 dBi and the main beam direction remains fixed along the operating frequency band. The array design has been manufactured and proper agreement between simulated and measured results are observed. The measured impedance bandwidth in all the array configurations is from 35 GHz to 41 GHz (15.79% bandwidth) with a reduction in the E-plane beamwidth as the number of radiating layers increases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (1) ◽  
pp. 67-72
Anil Kumar Yerrola ◽  
Maifuz Ali ◽  
Ravi Kumar Arya ◽  
Lakhindar Murmu ◽  
Ashwani Kumar

In millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications, the antenna gain is a crucial parameter to overcome path loss and atmospheric attenuation. This work presents the design of two cylindrical conformal antenna arrays, made of modified rectangular microstrip patch antenna as a radiating element, working at 28 GHz for mmWave applications providing high gain and beam steering capability. The microstrip patch antenna element uses Rogers RO4232 substrate with a thickness of 0.5 mm and surface area of 5.8 mm × 5.8 mm. The individual antenna element provides a gain of 6.9 dBi with return loss bandwidth of 5.12 GHz. The first antenna array, made by using five conformal antenna elements, achieves a uniform gain of approximately 12 dBi with minimal scan loss for extensive scan angles. In the second antenna array, a dielectric superstrate using Rogers TMM (10i) was used to modify the first antenna array. It enhanced the gain to approximately 16 dBi while still maintaining low scan loss for wide angles. The proposed array design method is very robust and can be applied to any conformal surface. The mathematical equations are also provided to derive the array design, and both array designs are verified by using full-wave simulations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 964 (1) ◽  
pp. 012028
Anh Thi-Kim Tran ◽  
Nhung Thi-Tuyet Hoang ◽  
Tien Thuy Hoang Nguyen

Abstract The synthesis of TiO2-chitosan-glycerol (TiCsG) beads was prepared to determine the optimum condition for dye removal under natural sunlight. By using the orthogonal array design with five parameters (ratio of TiO2/Chitosan, initial concentration of dyes, pH of solution, irradiation time, dose of TiCsG) to analyze their interaction such as well as optimizing the photocatalytic process. The significant parameters influent in the removal of Acid Blue 193, MO, NWY dyes were irradiation time (p = 0.011) and the ratio of TiO2/chitosan (p = 0.025), while the initial concentration of dyes, pH of dye solution and dose of TiCsG were unimportant factors with p > 0.05. The optimum of factors based on the ratio of signal per noise to attain the highest dye removal ability of TiCsG was the percentage of TiO2/chitosan = 2 % w/w (level 2), initial concentration of dye at level 5 (10 mg/L of AB 193, 5 mg/L for MO and 100 mg/L for NWY), pH =4.5 (level 2), irradiation time =1.5 h (level 5) and dose of TiCsG =0.2 g/mL (level 4).

J. Aswin ◽  
Radhika Priyavardhini ◽  
V. Hrishitha ◽  
Konda Harsha ◽  
M. Jayakumar

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Mingcong Xie ◽  
Xizhang Wei ◽  
Yanqun Tang ◽  
Dujuan Hu

Aperture-level simultaneous transmit and receive (ALSTAR) attempts to utilize adaptive digital transmit and receive beamforming and digital self-interference cancellation methods to establish isolation between the transmit and receive apertures of the single-phase array. However, the existing methods only discuss the isolation of ALSTAR and ignore the radiation efficiency of the transmitter and the sensitivity of the receiver. The ALSTAR array design lacks perfect theoretical support and simplified engineering implementation. This paper proposes an adaptive random group quantum brainstorming optimization (ARGQBSO) algorithm to simplify the array design and improve the overall performance. ARGQBSO is derived from BSO and has been ameliorated in four aspects of the ALSTAR array, including random grouping, initial value presets, dynamic probability functions, and quantum computing. The transmit and receive beamforming carried out by ARGQBSO is robust to all elevation angles, which reduces complexity and is conducive to engineering applications. The simulated results indicate that the ARGQBSO algorithm has an excellent performance, and achieves 166.8 dB of peak EII, 47.1 dBW of peak EIRP, and −94.6 dBm of peak EIS with 1000 W of transmit power in the scenario of an 8-element array.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 8018
Óscar Martínez-Graullera ◽  
Júlio Cesar Eduardo de Souza ◽  
Montserrat Parrilla Romero ◽  
Ricardo Tokio Higuti

The analysis of the beampattern is the base of sparse arrays design process. However, in the case of bidimensional arrays, this analysis has a high computational cost, turning the design process into a long and complex task. If the imaging system development is considered a holistic process, the aperture is a sampling grid that must be considered in the spatial domain through the coarray structure. Here, we propose to guide the aperture design process using statistical parameters of the distribution of the weights in the coarray. We have studied three designs of sparse matrix binned arrays with different sparseness degrees. Our results prove that there is a relationship between these parameters and the beampattern, which is valuable and improves the array design process. The proposed methodology reduces the computational cost up to 58 times with respect to the conventional fitness function based on the beampattern analysis.

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