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Author(s):  
Soma Das ◽  
Pooja Rai ◽  
Sanjay Chatterji

The tremendous increase in the growth of misinformation in news articles has the potential threat for the adverse effects on society. Hence, the detection of misinformation in news data has become an appealing research area. The task of annotating and detecting distorted news article sentences is the immediate need in this research direction. Therefore, an attempt has been made to formulate the legitimacy annotation guideline followed by annotation and detection of the legitimacy in Bengali e-papers. The sentence-level manual annotation of Bengali news has been carried out in two levels, namely “Level-1 Shallow Level Classification” and “Level-2 Deep Level Classification” based on semantic properties of Bengali sentences. The tagging of 1,300 anonymous Bengali e-paper sentences has been done using the formulated guideline-based tags for both levels. The validation of the annotation guideline has been done by applying benchmark supervised machine learning algorithms using the lexical feature, syntactic feature, domain-specific feature, and Level-2 specific feature in both levels. Performance evaluation of these classifiers is done in terms of Accuracy, Precision, Recall, and F-Measure. In both levels, Support Vector Machine outperforms other benchmark classifiers with an accuracy of 72% and 65% in Level-1 and Level-2, respectively.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262185
Author(s):  
Noora Taipale ◽  
Laurent Chiotti ◽  
Veerle Rots

Projectile technology is commonly viewed as a significant contributor to past human subsistence and, consequently, to our evolution. Due to the allegedly central role of projectile weapons in the food-getting strategies of Upper Palaeolithic people, typo-technological changes in the European lithic record have often been linked to supposed developments in hunting weaponry. Yet, relatively little reliable functional data is currently available that would aid the detailed reconstruction of past weapon designs. In this paper, we take a use-wear approach to the backed tool assemblages from the Recent and Final Gravettian layers (Levels 3 and 2) of Abri Pataud (Dordogne, France). Our use of strict projectile identification criteria relying on combinations of low and high magnification features and our critical view of the overlap between production and use-related fractures permitted us to confidently identify a large number of used armatures in both collections. By isolating lithic projectiles with the strongest evidence of impact and by recording wear attributes on them in detail, we could establish that the hunting equipment used during the Level 3 occupations involved both lithic weapon tips and composite points armed with lithic inserts. By contrast, the Level 2 assemblage reflects a heavy reliance on composite points in hunting reindeer and other game. Instead of an entirely new weapon design, the Level 2 collection therefore marks a shift in weapon preferences. Using recent faunal data, we discuss the significance of the observed diachronic change from the point of view of prey choice, seasonality, and social organisation of hunting activities. Our analysis shows that to understand their behavioural significance, typo-technological changes in the lithic record must be viewed in the light of functional data and detailed contextual information.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yu Kuei Lin ◽  
Caroline R. Richardson ◽  
Iulia Dobrin ◽  
Melissa J. DeJonckheere ◽  
Kara Mizokami-Stout ◽  
...  

<i>Objective:</i> This study aims to: (1) identify the frequency of severe and level 2 hypoglycemia presenting in people with type 1 diabetes using continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs), including those with concomitant closed-loop insulin pumps, in a clinical practice setting; (2) evaluate the impact of beliefs around hypoglycemia in the development of severe and level 2 hypoglycemia in this population. <p><i>Research Design and Methods:</i> A cross-sectional survey study in adults with type 1 diabetes using CGMs >6 months was conducted at a large tertiary academic center. Participant demographics, 6-month severe hypoglycemia history, hypoglycemia beliefs (with the Attitude to Awareness of Hypoglycemia questionnaire) and 4-week CGM glucose data were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the presentation of severe and level 2 hypoglycemia and identify associated risk factors. </p> <p><i>Results: </i>A total of 289 participants were recruited (including 257 participants with CGM data within the last 3 months). Of these, 25.6% experienced at least one severe hypoglycemic episode in the last 6 months, and 13.6% presented with ≥1% of time in level 2 hypoglycemia on CGMs. Reporting beliefs about prioritizing hyperglycemia avoidance was associated with severe hypoglycemia development (<i>P</i><0.001), while having beliefs of minimal concerns for hypoglycemia was associated with spending ≥1% of time in level 2 hypoglycemia (<i>P</i>=0.038).</p> <p><i>Conclusions:</i> Despite the use of advanced diabetes technologies, severe and level 2 hypoglycemia continues to occur in people with type 1 diabetes and high hypoglycemia risks. Human factors, including beliefs around hypoglycemia, may remain to impact the effectiveness of glucose self-management.</p>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yu Kuei Lin ◽  
Caroline R. Richardson ◽  
Iulia Dobrin ◽  
Melissa J. DeJonckheere ◽  
Kara Mizokami-Stout ◽  
...  

<i>Objective:</i> This study aims to: (1) identify the frequency of severe and level 2 hypoglycemia presenting in people with type 1 diabetes using continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs), including those with concomitant closed-loop insulin pumps, in a clinical practice setting; (2) evaluate the impact of beliefs around hypoglycemia in the development of severe and level 2 hypoglycemia in this population. <p><i>Research Design and Methods:</i> A cross-sectional survey study in adults with type 1 diabetes using CGMs >6 months was conducted at a large tertiary academic center. Participant demographics, 6-month severe hypoglycemia history, hypoglycemia beliefs (with the Attitude to Awareness of Hypoglycemia questionnaire) and 4-week CGM glucose data were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the presentation of severe and level 2 hypoglycemia and identify associated risk factors. </p> <p><i>Results: </i>A total of 289 participants were recruited (including 257 participants with CGM data within the last 3 months). Of these, 25.6% experienced at least one severe hypoglycemic episode in the last 6 months, and 13.6% presented with ≥1% of time in level 2 hypoglycemia on CGMs. Reporting beliefs about prioritizing hyperglycemia avoidance was associated with severe hypoglycemia development (<i>P</i><0.001), while having beliefs of minimal concerns for hypoglycemia was associated with spending ≥1% of time in level 2 hypoglycemia (<i>P</i>=0.038).</p> <p><i>Conclusions:</i> Despite the use of advanced diabetes technologies, severe and level 2 hypoglycemia continues to occur in people with type 1 diabetes and high hypoglycemia risks. Human factors, including beliefs around hypoglycemia, may remain to impact the effectiveness of glucose self-management.</p>


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
John G. Grundy

Researchers have recently begun to question the specificity and reliability of conflict adaptation effects, also known as sequential congruency effects (SCEs), a highly cited effect in cognitive psychology. Some have even used the lack of reliability across tasks (e.g., Flanker, and Stroop) to argue against models of cognitive control that have dominated the field for decades. The present study tested the possibility that domain-general processes across tasks might appear on more sensitive mouse-tracking metrics rather than overall reaction times. The relationship between SCE effects on the Stroop and Flanker tasks were examined for the first time using a mouse-tracking paradigm. Three main findings emerged: (1) Robust SCEs were observed for both the Stroop and Flanker tasks at the group level, (2) Within-task split-half reliabilities for the SCE across dependent variables were weak at best and non-existent in many cases, and (3) SCEs for the Flanker and Stroop tasks did not correlate with each other for overall reaction times, but did show significant correlations between tasks on more dynamic measures that captured processes before response execution. These findings contribute to the literature by highlighting how mouse-tracking may be a fruitful avenue by which future studies can examine the specificity and reliability of conflict adaptation and tease apart different theoretical models producing the effects.


Diabetes Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yu Kuei Lin ◽  
Caroline R. Richardson ◽  
Iulia Dobrin ◽  
Melissa J. DeJonckheere ◽  
Kara Mizokami-Stout ◽  
...  

OBJECTIVE This study aimed to 1) identify the frequency of severe and level 2 hypoglycemia presenting in individuals with type 1 diabetes using continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs), including those with concomitant closed-loop insulin pumps, in a clinical practice setting, and; 2) evaluate the impact of beliefs around hypoglycemia in the development of severe and level 2 hypoglycemia in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A cross-sectional survey study in adults with type 1 diabetes using CGMs &gt;6 months was conducted at a large tertiary academic center. Participant demographics, 6-month severe hypoglycemia history, hypoglycemia beliefs (with the Attitude to Awareness of Hypoglycemia questionnaire), and 4-week CGM glucose data were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the presentation of severe and level 2 hypoglycemia and identify associated risk factors. RESULTS A total of 289 participants were recruited (including 257 participants with CGM data within the last 3 months). Of these, 25.6% experienced at least one severe hypoglycemic episode in the last 6 months, and 13.6% presented with ≥1% of time in level 2 hypoglycemia on CGMs. Reporting beliefs about prioritizing hyperglycemia avoidance was associated with severe hypoglycemia development (P &lt; 0.001), while having beliefs of minimal concerns for hypoglycemia was associated with spending ≥1% of time in level 2 hypoglycemia (P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS Despite the use of advanced diabetes technologies, severe and level 2 hypoglycemia continues to occur in individuals with type 1 diabetes and high hypoglycemia risks. Human factors, including beliefs around hypoglycemia, may continue to impact the effectiveness of glucose self-management.


Author(s):  
Paul Galea ◽  
Kirsten Joyce ◽  
Sarah Galea ◽  
Frank Loughnane

Critical care provision is fundamental in all developed health systems in which severe disease and injury is managed. This is especially true in major trauma centres and high-acuity establishments, where acutely unstable patients can be admitted at any time, requiring clinical monitoring and interventions appropriate for their burden of illness. This single-centre, prospective service evaluation applied validated scoring systems to a surgical population, sampling and following those considered “high-risk” through to discharge or death, alongside all intensive care unit (ICU) admissions during 2019. Primarily we aimed to quantify the number of patients objectively suitable for Level 2 critical care, conventionally provided in a high-dependency unit (HDU) setting. Secondary outcome measures included ICU readmission rate, in-hospital mortality, and delays to ICU admission and discharge. Of the “high-risk” surgical patients, more than eight per week were found to have peri-operative Portsmouth Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (P-POSSUM) scores that would advocate critical care admission. Only one individual received scheduled peri-operative critical care. Post-operative mortality in this group was 6.1%, though none of these patients was admitted to ICU prior to death. There were 605 ICU admissions in 2019, with 32.1% of admitted days spent at the equivalent of Level 2 critical care, which could have been administered in a HDU if one was available. The ICU readmission rate was 6.45%. This data demonstrates substantial unmet critical care needs, with patients not uncommonly managed in clinically inappropriate areas for extended periods due to delays accessing ICU. A designated HDU may mitigate clinical risk from this subgroup, reducing morbidity and in-hospital mortality, and this methodology for assessing requirements could be used in other similar institutions.


Author(s):  
Haiyan Wang ◽  
Ye Liu ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
Wenyue Li ◽  
Hongtao Xu ◽  
...  

ObjectivesThis study aims to compare the microbiota of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) before and after mechanical debridement (MD) with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and determine the core efficient microbiota in peri-implantitis after treatment.MethodsWe recruited 9 patients (14 implants) treated with MD+aPDT for peri-implantitis at our center from February 1, 2018, to February 1, 2019. GCF was collected using filter paper strip before and after the treatment. The bacterial 16S rRNA was amplified and sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform to characterize the GCF. Bioinformatics and statistical analyses were performed using QIIME2 and R.ResultsA total of 4,110,861 high-quality sequences were obtained from GCF samples. Based on the reference database, 1,120 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) were finally harvested. Principal coordinates analysis indicated significant differences in the bacterial community structure between the 180 days after-treatment group and pre-treatment group. Difference analysis and least discriminant analysis showed that the differences were mainly reflected in non-dominant bacteria between these two groups. The non-dominant genera with significantly different distribution between the 180 days after-treatment group and the pre-treatment group included Lactobacillus, Pedobacter, Bulleidia, Centipeda, Desulfovibrio, Ochrobactrum, Staphylococcus, Microbacterium, Brevundimonas, Desulfobulbus, and Parvimonas. Moreover, a total of 29 predictive functional categories at KEGG level 2 were identified. The significant difference pathways at KEGG level 2 between after-treatment and pre-treatment were concentrated in infectious disease-related pathways.ConclusionsPatients with peri-implantitis have significant changes in the low-abundance bacteria of the GCF before and after MD+aPDT. MD+aPDT may change the composition of GCF microbiota by increasing the abundance of cluster 1 (beneficial) and decreasing that of cluster 4 (harmful), which may decrease metabolic response to infection and thus improve peri-implantitis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 34-52
Author(s):  
Andromachi Nanou ◽  
Evaggelia Tsiomi ◽  
Andreas Oikonomou ◽  
Dimitris Karampatzakis

Educational Robotics in inclusive learning environments creates a wide area of research where innovative teaching practices and theoretical approaches are developed and investigated in order for the new growing educational challenges to be met. In this context, an educational intervention research was carried out using mixed research methodology. The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the“SAS Strategy Training” a strategy that developed to foster the participation of children with autism, at level 2, in inclusive teamwork with peers during construction and programming LEGO Mindstorms. 2 children, 10-11 years old, diagnosed with autism, at level 2, participated in two inclusive educational robotics teams with typical peers. Τhe SaS Strategy has been integrated in the collaboration script that was designed to support the interaction between the team members during their collaboration on programming LEGO Mindstorms. The “SaS Strategy Training” had encouraging results in reducing the barriers of the participation of the children with autism in teamwork with their typical peers. Critical questions, reflections and new research horizons emerged. 


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