microstrip patch antennas
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Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 129
Oscar Ossa-Molina ◽  
Francisco López-Giraldo

In this study, we developed an analytical model of slot-loaded rectangular microstrip patch antennas based on the simulation results by varying slot parameters. The dominant resonant frequency predicted by such a model is in strong agreement with the experimental results measured at several locations of slot-loaded rectangular microstrip patch antennas. The model enables a reliable and quick computation of the resonant frequency, which generally follows a harmonic behavior that nearly resembles the resonant frequency of a microstrip antenna without a slot, which can be related to a small change in the impedance caused by the slot position. Results showed a good agreement between simulations and measurements for all the slot positions. Mathematical analytic functions to describe the changes in specific characteristic parameters of the slot-loaded rectangular microstrip patch antennas are also included.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 8116
João Ricardo Reis ◽  
Mário Vala ◽  
Tiago Emanuel Oliveira ◽  
Telmo Rui Fernandes ◽  
Rafael Ferreira Silva Caldeirinha

In this paper, a metamaterial-inspired flat beamsteering antenna for 5G applications is presented. The antenna, designed to operate in the 3.6 GHz at 5G frequency bands, presents an unique flat form factor which allows easy deployment and low visual impact in 5G dense scenarios. The antenna presents a multi-layer structure where a metamaterial inspired transmitarray enables the two-dimensional (2D) beamsteering, and an array of microstrip patch antennas is used as RF source. The use of metamaterials in antenna beamsteering allows the reduction of costly and complex phase-shifter networks by using discrete capacitor diodes to control the transmission phase-shifting and subsequently, the direction of the steering. According to simulations, the proposed antenna presents steering range up to ±20∘, achievable in both elevation and azimuth planes, independently. To prove the concept, a prototype of the antenna has been built and experimentally characterised inside an anechoic chamber. Although constructed in a different substrate (FR4 substrate) as initially designed, beamsteering ranges up to 8∘ in azimuth and 13∘ in elevation, limited to the proposed case-studies, are reported with the prototype, validating the antenna and the usefulness of the proposed design.

Suriya Prakash Jambunathan

Abstract: Microstrip patch antennas are predominantly in use in mobile communication and healthcare. Their performances are even improved, using Split-Ring Resonator cells. But finding the ideal dimensions of the microstrip patch antenna and calculating the correct number and size of the split ring resonator cells consume a lot of time when we use Electromagnetic Simulation software to design first and then simulate. Using the pre-calculated results of certain sets of microstrip patch antennas with split ring resonators, a machine learning model can be trained and hence be used to predict the antenna metrics when the dimensions are specified. When the machine learning algorithms are combined with feature-optimization algorithms such as the Genetic Algorithm, the efficiency and performance can be improved further. Keywords: Machine Learning, Micro-strip Patch Antenna, Genetic algorithm, Split Ring Resonator.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7283
Longzhu Cai ◽  
Qiushi Yu

We prepare and test four types of glass antennas for X-band applications and energy harvesting. These antennas are made of three different glass metallization schemes, including conductive copper foil (CCF), conductive silver paste (CSP) and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film. Compared with conventional microstrip patch antennas, the dielectric substrate materials of these designs are replaced with silicon-boron glass (εr = 6, tangent δ = 0.002). The antenna with CCF as a radiator and ground plane (case one) is compared with the antenna with ITO replacing the radiator (case two) and ground plane (case three), respectively, and the glass antenna made of CSP (case four) is also presented. In this paper, these four types of glass antennas are measured and analyzed, and a comparison of the fabrication process and performance of these antennas is demonstrated. This study could contribute to the development of human-machine interactivity (HMI) systems with glass dielectric substrates.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (22) ◽  
pp. 2766
Wazie M. Abdulkawi ◽  
Abdel Fattah A. Sheta ◽  
Ibrahim Elshafiey ◽  
Majeed A. Alkanhal

This paper presents novel low-cost single- and dual-band microstrip patch antennas. The proposed antennas are realized on a square microstrip patch etched symmetrically with four slots. The antenna is designed to have low cost and reduced size to use in Internet of things (IoT) applications. The antennas provide a reconfigurable architecture that allows operation in different wireless communication bands. The proposed structure can be adjusted to operate either in single band or in dual-band operation. Two prototypes are implemented and evaluated. The first structure works at a single resonance frequency (f1 = 2.4 GHz); however, the second configuration works at two resonance frequencies (f1 = 2.4 GHz and f2 = 2.8 GHz) within the same size. These antennas use a low-cost FR-4 dielectric substrate. The 2.4 GHz is allotted for the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band, and the 2.8 GHz is allocated to verify the concept and can be adjusted to meet the user’s requirements. The measurement of the fabricated antennas closely matches the simulated results.

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