patch antennas
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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 602
Jiaying Zhang ◽  
Jin Huang ◽  
Peng Sun ◽  
Fanbo Meng ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  

With the advent of wearable communication devices, microstrip antennas have developed multiple applications due to their ultra-low-profile properties. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the problem of frequency shift and impedance mismatch when the antenna is bent. For the case of a rectangular patch antenna E-plane bent on the cylindrical surface, (1) this paper introduces the effective dielectric constant into the cavity model, which can accurately predict the resonance frequency of the antenna, and (2) according to the equivalent circuit model of the antenna resonance mode, the lumped element parameters are calculated based on the above effective dielectric constant, so that impedance characteristics and the S-parameter matching the port can be quickly constructed. From the perspective of circuit frequency characteristics, it explains the change in the transmission performance of the curved antenna. The experimental results show that the maximum difference between the experimental and theoretical calculation frequencies is less than 1%. These results verify the validity and applicability of the theory in the analysis of ultra-low-profile patch antennas and wearable electronic communication devices. It provides a theoretical basis for the fast impedance matching of patch antennas under different working conditions.

Rajib Kumar Dash ◽  
Puspendu Bikash Saha ◽  
Dibyendu Ghoshal ◽  
Gopinath Palai

In this article two fractal geometry-based slotted patch antennas are designed to achieve wideband response with multiband characteristics and reduced cross polarized radiation in both E- and H-plane for all the resonating bands. The proposed antennas are fed with microstrip line feeding formed on a FR4 substrate of size 0.25𝜆0 × 0.25𝜆0 × 0.02𝜆0 mm3 and loaded with a partial ground plane at the bottom of the substrate. HFSS is used to design and simulate both the antennas. Wideband behavior and impedance matching of Antenna-1 are improved by optimizing the factor of iteration and length of the ground plane. Due to addition of 3 identical split ring resonators (SRR) with the antenna geometry leads to achieve multiband response in Antenna-2. The dimensions of the SRR connectors and feedline have been optimized through parametric analysis to match the impedance properly at all the three resonating bands. It has been found that simulated and measurement results of both the antennas are properly matched.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 129
Oscar Ossa-Molina ◽  
Francisco López-Giraldo

In this study, we developed an analytical model of slot-loaded rectangular microstrip patch antennas based on the simulation results by varying slot parameters. The dominant resonant frequency predicted by such a model is in strong agreement with the experimental results measured at several locations of slot-loaded rectangular microstrip patch antennas. The model enables a reliable and quick computation of the resonant frequency, which generally follows a harmonic behavior that nearly resembles the resonant frequency of a microstrip antenna without a slot, which can be related to a small change in the impedance caused by the slot position. Results showed a good agreement between simulations and measurements for all the slot positions. Mathematical analytic functions to describe the changes in specific characteristic parameters of the slot-loaded rectangular microstrip patch antennas are also included.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Arebu Dejen ◽  
Jeevani Jayasinghe ◽  
Murad Ridwan ◽  
Jaume Anguera ◽  

<abstract><p>Multi-band microstrip patch antennas are convenient for mm-wave wireless applications due to their low profile, less weight, and planar structure. This paper investigates patch geometry optimization of a single microstrip antenna by employing a binary coded genetic algorithm to attain triple band frequency operation for wireless network application. The algorithm iteratively creates new models of patch surface, evaluates the fitness function of each individual ranking them and generates the next set of offsprings. Finally, the fittest individual antenna model is returned. Genetically engineered antenna was simulated in ANSYS HFSS software and compared with the non-optimized reference antenna with the same dimensions. The optimized antenna operates at three frequency bands centered at 28 GHz, 40 GHz, and 47 GHz whereas the reference antenna operates only at 28 GHz with a directivity of 6.8 dB. Further, the test result exhibits broadside radiation patterns with peak directivities of 7.7 dB, 12.1 dB, and 8.2 dB respectively. The covered impedance bandwidths when S<sub>11</sub>$ \leq $-10 dB are 1.8 %, 5.5 % and 0.85 % respectively.</p></abstract>

Algorithms ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Piotr Górniak

In the paper, the author deals with modeling the stochastic behavior of ordinary patch antennas in terms of the mean and standard deviation of their reflection coefficient |S11| under the geometrical uncertainty associated with their manufacturing process. The Artificial Neural Network is used to model the stochastic reflection coefficient of the antennas. The Polynomial Chaos Expansion and FDTD computations are used to obtain the training and testing data for the Artificial Neural Network. For the first time, the author uses his analytical transformations to reduce the required number of highly time-consuming FDTD simulations for a given set of nominal values of the design parameters of the ordinary patch antenna. An analysis is performed for n257 and n258 frequency bands (24.5–28.7 GHz). The probability distributions of the design parameters are extracted from the measurement results obtained for a series of manufactured patch antenna arrays for three different frequencies in the C, X, and Ka bands. Patch antennas are chosen as the subject of the scientific analysis in this paper because of the popularity of the patch antennas in the scientific literature concerning antennas, as well as because of a simple form of these antennas that is reflected in the time required for computation of training and testing data for the Artificial Neural Network.

GPS Solutions ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Jacek Paziewski

AbstractWe analyze the observation quality, assess the performance and identify the constraints of quadruple-constellation single-frequency ionospheric-free precise point positioning (SF-IF PPP) with low-cost receivers. It is revealed that low-cost receivers with patch antennas exhibit lower C/N0 records and a weaker elevation dependence of C/N0 than the high-grade equipment. The results demonstrate that low-cost receivers can offer code measurements with similar noise compared to high-grade receivers providing that the multipath effect is eliminated. Regarding positioning performance, it is shown how SF-IF PPP for the high-grade receiver converges approximately two times faster than for the low-cost receiver with a patch antenna. It is confirmed that an application of a survey-grade antenna instead of the patch one noticeably enhances the performance of low-cost receiver SF-IF PPP. The study also reveals that the multipath effect is a dominant factor that constrains the performance of SF-IF PPP with low-cost receivers.

Rupinder Singh ◽  
Sanjeev Kumar ◽  
Amrinder Pal Singh ◽  
Yang Wei

In the past two decades number of studies have been reported on the use of thermoplastics as a substrate for 3D printed patch antennas. However, no work has been reported on the thermoplastic-thermosetting composite-based substrate for 3D printed patch antennas and their mechanical, morphological, rheological, and radiofrequency (RF) characterization for sensing applications. In this study low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and LDPE-5% bakelite (BAK) composite-based patch antenna (resonating frequency 2.45 GHz) were printed (for secondary recycling) on fused deposition modeling (FDM) setup. The RF characteristics were measured using a vector network analyzer (VNA). Ring resonator test was used for measuring the dielectric properties of substrates (which suggests that the dielectric constant ([Formula: see text]) and loss tangent ([Formula: see text]) for LDPE was 2.282 and 0.0045, whereas for LDPE-5%BAK the calculated [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] was 2.0663, 0.0051 respectively). This study highlights that for the LDPE-5%BAK composite there was a marginal increase in the size of the patch antenna; but this resulted in improved transmittance, gain, and return loss for typical sensor applications. As regards to printability of substrate, 5% BAK resulted in a melt flow index (MFI) of 9.96 g/10 min in contrast to 12.208 g/10 min for a neat LDPE sample. The selected LDPE-5%BAK composite resulted in peak strength (PS) and break strength (BS) of 16.08 MPa and 14.47 MPa (at 180 °C screw temperature, 110 rpm, and 11 kg load) while processing with a twin-screw extruder (TSE), which was observed better than the neat LDPE (PS 11.98 MPa, BS 10.79 MPa). The results were supported with porosity (%), surface roughness (Ra) analysis based upon scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and bond strength using attenuated total reflection (ATR) based Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) analysis.

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