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Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 136
Jianlin Huang ◽  
Zhuoni Chen ◽  
Qibo Cai ◽  
Tian Hong Loh ◽  
Gui Liu

A multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna array for triple-band 5G metal-frame smartphone applications is proposed in this paper. Each single antenna element consists of an S-shaped feeding strip and an L-shaped radiation strip on the metal frame. The dimension of the antenna element is only 6.5 mm × 7 mm (0.076 λ0 × 0.082 λ0, λ0 is the free-space wavelength at the frequency of 3.5 GHz). The −6 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed eight-antenna array can cover 3.3–3.8 GHz, 4.8–5 GHz, and 5.15–5.925 GHz. The evolution design and the analysis of the optimal parameters for a single antenna element are derived to investigate the principle of the antenna. The measured total efficiency is larger than 70%. The measured isolation is better than 13 dB. The measurements of the prototype agree well with the simulation results.

2022 ◽  
Cleofás Segura-Gómez ◽  
Ángel Palomares-Caballero ◽  
Pablo Padilla

This paper presents a vertically stacked SIW antenna array that enables different array configurations with the minimum number of SIW layers. This achievement lies in the modular feature offered by the proposed design. Specifically, 4 distinct array configurations can be produced with only 3 different design of SIW layers. Depending on the number of SIW layers employed in the stacked antenna, the directivity in the E-plane of radiation is modified. To obtain an equal and in-phase power distribution among the array elements, H- and E-plane corporate feeding networks are efficiently implemented in each array configuration. Array configurations of 1, 2, 4 and 8 radiating layers are offered by the proposed modular array, where each radiating layer is formed by 8 H-plane SIW horn antennas. The simulated directivity for the array configurations ranges from 15.8 dBi to 23.8 dBi and the main beam direction remains fixed along the operating frequency band. The array design has been manufactured and proper agreement between simulated and measured results are observed. The measured impedance bandwidth in all the array configurations is from 35 GHz to 41 GHz (15.79% bandwidth) with a reduction in the E-plane beamwidth as the number of radiating layers increases.

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Chao Xu ◽  
Yi Fan ◽  
Xiongying Liu

A circularly polarized implantable antenna integrated with a voltage-doubled rectifier (abbr., rectenna) is investigated for microwave wireless power transfer in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band of 2.4–2.48 GHz. The proposed antenna is miniaturized with the dimensions of 7.5 mm × 7.5 mm × 1.27 mm by etching four C-shaped open slots on the patch. A rectangular slot truncated diagonally is cut to improve the circular polarization performance of the antenna. The simulated impedance bandwidth in a three-layer phantom is 30.4% (1.9–2.58 GHz) with |S11| below −10 dB, and the 3-dB axial-ratio bandwidth is 16.9% (2.17–2.57 GHz). Furthermore, a voltage-doubled rectifier circuit that converts RF power to DC power is designed on the back of the antenna. The simulated RF-to-DC conversion efficiency can be up to 45% at the input power of 0 dBm. The proposed rectenna was fabricated and measured in fresh pork to verify the simulated results and evaluate the performance of wireless power transfer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Qasim Awais ◽  
Asad Farooq ◽  
Waqas Ali ◽  
Reshal Afzal ◽  
Adeel Khalid

Conversion of electric power from a high voltage to a low voltage causes power losses that also require efficient circuit design techniques to be implemented for durability of a system. Energy harvesting techniques have been implemented to cater to the power demand of low power electronic devices using electromagnetic, electrostatic, and other related technologies. This paper represents the compact design of an antenna system tuned at 2.45 GHz for radio frequency energy harvesting applications. The simulation results achieve a better gain of 5.4 dB along with enhanced radiation patterns. Impedance matching for 50 Ohm is implemented using a high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). The results of the antenna gain, VSWR, and radiation efficiency are compared with the literature. Furthermore, the size of the antenna system has great significance in medical and military related applications; this aspect is also considered in this design and overall, a 20 mm × 37 mm compact antenna is achieved by using mm wave considerations. This antenna design can be embedded in the wireless sensor network (WSN), RFID, and IoT related application to generate the required power required. Mostly, WSN nodes currently use traditional batteries that need to be replaced after some time. As in most cases, WSN nodes are scattered in wide geographical areas, so maintaining the power to these systems becomes challenging. RF energy harvesting provides a solution in these cases where wind, vibration, and solar sources are scarce. The simulated impedance bandwidth is found to range from 1.1 GHz to 5.2 GHz within the acceptable VSWR values.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Wei Xu ◽  
Jingchang Nan ◽  
Mingming Gao

A compact circularly polarized (CP) antenna is proposed for low-profile and wideband operation based on characteristic mode analysis (CMA). A ring patch with a gap and two arc-shaped metallic stubs as the radiator is analyzed and optimized by CMA to figure out the orthogonal modes and operating frequency band for potential good axial ratio (AR) performance. The studies of these CP modes provide a physical insight into the property of broadband circular polarization. Such an in-depth understanding paves the way for the proposal of novel CP antenna with separation between the design of radiator and feeding network. A 50-Ω coplanar waveguide (CPW) is introduced and placed appropriately to excite the desired modes based on the information from CMA, which employs two asymmetric ground planes to improve the performance in terms of AR and impedance matching. The antenna with a compact size of 0.71λ0 × 0.76λ0 × 0.038λ0 (λ0 is the free-space wavelength at the center frequency of the 3-dB AR bandwidth) is fabricated and measured for validation. The realized gain varies from 1.6 to 3.1 dBic over the operating bandwidth characterized by the measured 10-dB impedance bandwidth of 83.8% (3.98–9.72 GHz) and 3-dB AR bandwidth of 70.3% (4.59–9.57 GHz), respectively.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 252
Kyei Anim ◽  
Patrick Danuor ◽  
Seong-Ook Park ◽  
Young-Bae Jung

In this paper, a high efficiency broadband planar array antenna is developed at X-band for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) on small satellites. The antenna is based on a multi-layer element structure consisting of two dielectric substrates made of Taconic TLY-5 and three copper layers (i.e., the parasitic patch (top layer), the active patch (middle layer), and the ground plane (bottom layer)). The parasitic patch resides on the bottom surface of the upper TLY-5 substrate while the active patch is printed on the top surface of the lower substrate. A Rohacell foam material is sandwiched between the top layer and the middle layer to separate the two dielectric substrates in order to achieve high directivity, wideband, and to keep the antenna weight to a minimum as required by the SAR satellite application. To satisfy the required size of the antenna panel for the small SAR satellite, an asymmetric corporate feeding network (CFN) is designed to feed a 12 × 16 planar array antenna. However, it was determined that the first corporate feed junction at the center of the CFN, where higher amplitudes of the input signal are located, contributes significantly to the leaky wave emission, which degrades the radiation efficiency and increases the sidelobe level. Thus, a suspended microstrip slab, which is simply a wide and long microstrip line, is designed and positioned on the top layer directly above that feed junction to prevent the leaky waves from radiating. The experimental results of the antenna show good agreement with the simulated ones, achieving an impedance bandwidth of 12.4% from 9.01 to 10.20 GHz and a high gain above 28 dBi. The antenna efficiency estimated from the gain and directivity eclipses 51.34%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Thennarasi Govindan ◽  
Sandeep Kumar Palaniswamy ◽  
Malathi Kanagasabai ◽  
Sachin Kumar ◽  
Thipparaju Rama Rao ◽  

A conformal four-port multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna operating at 2.4 GHz and ultrawideband (UWB) is presented for wearable applications. The unit element of the MIMO antenna is a simple rectangular monopole with an impedance bandwidth of 8.9 GHz (3.1–12 GHz). In the monopole radiator, stubs are introduced to achieve 2.4 GHz resonance. Also, a defect is introduced in the ground plane to reduce backside radiation. The efficiency of the proposed antenna is greater than 95%, and its peak gain is 3.1 dBi. The MIMO antenna has an isolation of >20 dB, and the estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) values for 1 gm of tissue are below 1.6 W/Kg. The size of the four-port MIMO antenna is 1.38λ0 × 0.08λ0 × 0.014λ0.

Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 53
Muhammad M. Hossain ◽  
Md Jubaer Alam ◽  
Saeed I. Latif

This article presents the design of a planar MIMO (Multiple Inputs Multiple Outputs) antenna comprised of two sets orthogonally placed 1 × 12 linear antenna arrays for 5G millimeter wave (mmWave) applications. The arrays are made of probe-fed microstrip patch antenna elements on a 90 × 160 mm2 Rogers RT/Duroid 5880 grounded dielectric substrate. The antenna demonstrates S11 = −10 dB impedance bandwidth in the following 5G frequency band: 24.25–27.50 GHz. The scattering parameters of the antenna were computed by electromagnetic simulation tools, Ansys HFSS and CST Microwave Studio, and were further verified by the measured results of a fabricated prototype. To achieve a gain of 12 dBi or better over a scanning range of +/−45° from broadside, the Dolph-Tschebyscheff excitation weighting and optimum spacing are used. Different antenna parameters, such as correlation coefficient, port isolation, and 2D and 3D radiation patterns, are investigated to determine the effectiveness of this antenna for MIMO operation, which will be very useful for mmWave cellphone applications in 5G bands.

Symmetry ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 29
Manish Sharma ◽  
Prem Chand Vashist ◽  
Ibrahim Alsukayti ◽  
Nitin Goyal ◽  
Divya Anand ◽  

This research article reports a compact fractal 4 × 4 UWB extended bandwidth MIMO antenna with physical dimensions of 44 × 44 mm2 for high-speed wireless applications. The reported antenna comprises four fractal radiating elements that are symmetrical and placed orthogonal to each other with a respective rectangular ground printed on the opposite plane. A higher isolation is achieved between the radiating elements by the placement of a fractal patch orthogonally and no separate decoupling structure is required. The antenna offers a −10 dB transmission capacity of 2.84–15.88 GHz. The fractal radiating element, which is embedded by an inverted T-type stub placed within a rectangular slot and an etched rotated C-type slot, provides band-stop filters for WiMAX (Worldwide inter-operability for Microwave Access) and WLAN (wireless local area network)-interfering bands. The key parameters of diversity performance are compared by simulation and measurement (fabricated prototype) of ECC (envelope correlation coefficient), DG (directive gain), TARC (total active reflection coefficient) and CCL (channel capacity loss). The antenna offers an omnidirectional radiation pattern with an average gain of 3.52 dBi.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Reza Kazemi ◽  
Mohsen Fallah ◽  
Bijan Abbasi ◽  
Seyyed Hossein MohseniArmaki

Purpose The purpose of this study is to achieve the low-cost, light-weight and compact antenna array with wide bandwidth and low side lobe levels for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) applications in Ku frequency band. Design/methodology/approach A compact design of a rectangular microstrip patch antenna array using multilayered dielectric structure is presented in Ku-band for advanced broadband SAR systems. In this design, stepped pins are used to connect the microstrip feed lines to the radiating patches. Findings The simulation and fabrication results of the multilayered antenna and a 1×16-element linear array of the antenna with Taylor amplitude distribution in the feeding network are presented. The antenna element has a 10-dB impedance bandwidth of more than 26%, and the linear array shows reduction in bandwidth percentage (about 15.4%). Thanks to Taylor amplitude tapering, the side lobe level (SLL) of the array is lower than −24 dB. The maximum measured gains of the antenna element and the linear array are 7 and 19.2 dBi at the center frequency, respectively. Originality/value In the communication systems, a high gain narrow beamwidth radiation pattern achieved by an array of multiple antenna elements with optimized spacing is a solution to overcome the path loss, atmospheric loss, polarization loss, etc. Also, wideband characteristics and compact size are desirable in satellite and SAR systems. This paper provides the combination of these features by microstrip structures.

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