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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 21-28
Fumio Yamazaki ◽  
Wakana Kobayashi ◽  
Manayo Suenaga ◽  
Kana Tsuchimoto

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
J. Smith Torres-Roman ◽  
Luz Ronceros-Cardenas ◽  
Bryan Valcarcel ◽  
Janina Bazalar-Palacios ◽  
Jorge Ybaseta-Medina ◽  

Abstract Background Cervical cancer continues to show a high burden among young women worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Limited data is available describing cervical cancer mortality among young women in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The purpose of this study was to examine the mortality trends of cervical cancer among young women in LAC and predict mortality rates to 2030. Methods Deaths from cervical cancer were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 women-years were estimated in women aged 20–44 years using the world standard population for 16 countries (and territories) in LAC from 1997 to 2017. We estimated the average mortality rates for the last 4 years (2014–2017). Joinpoint regression models were used to identify significant changes in mortality trends. Nordpred method was used for the prediction of the mortality rates to 2030. Results Between 2014 and 2017, Paraguay and Venezuela had the highest mortality rates of cervical cancer, whereas Puerto Rico had the lowest rates. Overall, most of the LAC countries showed downward trends of cervical cancer mortality over the entire period. Significant decreases were observed in Chile (Average annual percent change [AAPC]: − 2.4%), Colombia (AAPC: − 2.0%), Cuba (AAPC: − 3.6%), El Salvador (AAPC: − 3.1%), Mexico (AAPC: − 3.9%), Nicaragua (AAPC: − 1.7%), Panama (AAPC: − 1.7%), and Peru (AAPC: − 2.2%). In contrast, Brazil (AAPC: + 0.8%) and Paraguay (AAPC: + 3.7%) showed significant upward trends. By 2030, mortality rates are not predicted to further decrease in some LAC countries, including Argentina, Paraguay, and Venezuela. Conclusions Mortality trends of cervical cancer among young women have large variability in LAC countries. Cervical cancer screening programs have a high priority for the region. Primary and secondary prevention in the community are necessary to accelerate a reduction of cervical cancer mortality by 2030.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Maribel Salas ◽  
Margaret Mordin ◽  
Colleen Castro ◽  
Zahidul Islam ◽  
Nora Tu ◽  

Abstract Background To identify and describe the breast cancer–specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments with evidence of validation in the breast cancer population for potential use in patients treated for breast cancer (excluding surgery). Methods We conducted a systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases to identify articles that contain psychometric properties of HRQoL instruments used in patients with breast cancer. Relevant literature from January 1, 2009, to August 19, 2019, was searched. Articles published in English that reported psychometric properties (reliability, validity) of HRQoL instruments were identified. Results The database search yielded 613 unique records; 131 full-text articles were reviewed; 80 articles presented psychometric data for instruments used in breast cancer (including generic measures). This article reviews the 33 full articles describing psychometric properties of breast cancer-specific HRQoL instruments: EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-BR23, FACT-B, FBSI, NFBSI-16, YW-BCI36, BCSS, QuEST-Br, QLICP-BR, INA-BCHRQoL, and two newly developed unnamed measures, one by Deshpande and colleagues (for use in India) and one by Vanlemmens and colleagues (for use among young women and their partners). The articles that described the EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23, and FACT-B centered on validating translations, providing additional support for content validity, and demonstrating acceptability of electronic patient-reported outcome administration. Psychometric properties of the measures were acceptable. Several new measures have been developed in Asia with an emphasis on development on cultural relevance/sensitivity. Others focused on specific populations (i.e., young women with breast cancer). Conclusions Historically, there have been limited options for validated measures to assess HRQoL of patients with breast cancer. A number of new measures have been developed and validated, offering promising options for assessing HRQoL in this patient population. This review supports the reliability and validity of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and FACT-B; new translations and electronic versions of these measures further support their use for this population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Murray Drummond ◽  
Claire Drummond ◽  
Sam Elliott ◽  
Ivanka Prichard ◽  
Jamie-Lee Pennesi ◽  

Girls' and young women's engagement and disengagement in physical activity has been well documented in Western culture. Sport plays a pivotal role in the development of behaviours that promote physical activity, particularly through commitment to team and individual goal attainment, socialisation, and feelings of belonging and self-identity. Community sport in Australia is the dominant pathway into state, national, and elite international competition. The importance of community sport in the lives of girls and young women cannot be overstated, irrespective of individual long-term sporting goals. Indeed, the dropout rate of girls in sports, like many other western cultures is significant and is certainly disproportionate to the numbers of boys who drop out. The present study aims to examine the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental influences on community sporting pathways for girls and young women. Using a mixed-methods design, we include survey data from 2,189 high-school students (aged 12–18 years) and focus group and individual interview data from a subset of 37 high-school students, parents, and teachers, across metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. The study included an examination of sporting practises and insights of male sport participants from the same age groups to juxtapose the findings and provide a more comprehensive understanding of girls' and young women's community sporting involvement. Parents and teachers were also included within the participant cohort to provide a comprehensive perspective. The results highlight the challenges that girls face with respect to engagement and disengagement in sport and particular points throughout their adolescent years. Recommendations are provided to help mitigate potential attrition of girls in sport in the future.

Angelique Bobrie ◽  
Marta Jarlier ◽  
Aurore Moussion ◽  
William Jacot ◽  
Veronique D’Hondt

Abstract Purpose Sexual quality of life (QoL) is affected during and after breast cancer (BC) treatment. The purpose was to investigate sexual and global QoL and patient-reported measures to address this issue in young women (< 51 years) with BC after the acute treatment phase, during adjuvant endocrine therapy. Methods Three EORTC questionnaires and an additional specific questionnaire, developed for the study, were used to assess sexual and global QoL and patient-reported supportive measures in BC patients who had received their endocrine therapy for at least 24 months. Among the 54 eligible patients, 45 (83%) agreed to participate in the study. Results We showed a deterioration in sexual QoL and poor communication with healthcare professionals. Most patients (88.9%) declared that it was important that sexuality should be discussed with caregivers and that the partner should also be involved. Most patients (60%) had taken at least one action to overcome their sexual problems. Most of these interventions (63%) originated from the patient herself. Conclusions Sexual QoL is a major issue in young BC patients and is poorly addressed by healthcare professionals. Most of the supportive methods used by the patients to overcome these side effects were on their own initiative. Communication and counseling on sexuality by healthcare professionals need to be improved during BC treatment. Patients suggested supportive measures they would find useful and appropriate to develop in the clinic. The final goal is to improve the sexual QoL of BC patients with the appropriate intervention and support.

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