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Public Health ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 203 ◽  
pp. 31-35
C. Nie ◽  
T. Yang ◽  
L. Liu ◽  
F. Hong

Wenjing Zhao ◽  
Jun Morinaga ◽  
Shigekazu Ukawa ◽  
Motoyoshi Endo ◽  
Hiroya Yamada ◽  

Abstract Aging is important medical and social problem. Excessive angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL)-2 signaling causes chronic tissue inflammation, promoting development and progression of aging-related diseases. Moreover, circulating ANGPTL2 levels reportedly predict risk of some aging-related diseases and subsequent death. However, there are as yet no reports of whether circulating ANGPTL2 levels predict vital prognosis in younger-old, community-dwelling populations. This study investigated associations between plasma ANGPTL2 levels and all-cause and specific-cause mortality in this population. The case-cohort study was abstracted from an on-going, age-specific prospective cohort study: the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project. This project enrolled 3073 participants aged 64 years at the beginning of the investigation from 1996 through 2005. A sub-cohort of 714 randomly sampled participants plus 387 cases representing deceased participants followed through 2015 underwent survival analysis. Plasma ANGPTL2 concentrations were positively associated with >80% and 100% higher risk of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality, respectively, after adjustment for gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, walking time, sleep duration, caloric intake, medical status, disease history, BMI, and triglyceride, creatinine, uric acid, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. More robust association between ANGPTL2 levels and all-cause and cancer mortality was seen in subjects with either frailties or with lifestyles of heavier drinking or current smoking. Elevated plasma ANGPTL2 levels are associated with high all-cause and cancer mortality in a community-dwelling sample of younger-old adults. These findings expand our knowledge of human aging and associated diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
J. Smith Torres-Roman ◽  
Luz Ronceros-Cardenas ◽  
Bryan Valcarcel ◽  
Janina Bazalar-Palacios ◽  
Jorge Ybaseta-Medina ◽  

Abstract Background Cervical cancer continues to show a high burden among young women worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Limited data is available describing cervical cancer mortality among young women in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The purpose of this study was to examine the mortality trends of cervical cancer among young women in LAC and predict mortality rates to 2030. Methods Deaths from cervical cancer were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 women-years were estimated in women aged 20–44 years using the world standard population for 16 countries (and territories) in LAC from 1997 to 2017. We estimated the average mortality rates for the last 4 years (2014–2017). Joinpoint regression models were used to identify significant changes in mortality trends. Nordpred method was used for the prediction of the mortality rates to 2030. Results Between 2014 and 2017, Paraguay and Venezuela had the highest mortality rates of cervical cancer, whereas Puerto Rico had the lowest rates. Overall, most of the LAC countries showed downward trends of cervical cancer mortality over the entire period. Significant decreases were observed in Chile (Average annual percent change [AAPC]: − 2.4%), Colombia (AAPC: − 2.0%), Cuba (AAPC: − 3.6%), El Salvador (AAPC: − 3.1%), Mexico (AAPC: − 3.9%), Nicaragua (AAPC: − 1.7%), Panama (AAPC: − 1.7%), and Peru (AAPC: − 2.2%). In contrast, Brazil (AAPC: + 0.8%) and Paraguay (AAPC: + 3.7%) showed significant upward trends. By 2030, mortality rates are not predicted to further decrease in some LAC countries, including Argentina, Paraguay, and Venezuela. Conclusions Mortality trends of cervical cancer among young women have large variability in LAC countries. Cervical cancer screening programs have a high priority for the region. Primary and secondary prevention in the community are necessary to accelerate a reduction of cervical cancer mortality by 2030.

2022 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104876
Minghui Han ◽  
Ranran Qie ◽  
Xuezhong Shi ◽  
Yongli Yang ◽  
Jie Lu ◽  

ObjectiveCurrent evidence of the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mortality is limited. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the dose–response association of CRF with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in healthy population.MethodsPubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched up to 26 December 2019 for reports of cohort studies giving risk estimates for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality by level of CRF. Cohort studies were included if CRF was assessed by an exercise stress test and reported as at least three levels or per incremental increase, and the association of CRF with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality was evaluated. Generalised least-squares regression models were used to assess the quantitative relation of CRF with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality.Results34 cohort studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risks (RRs) for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality per one-metabolic equivalent increase in CRF were 0.88 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.93), 0.87 (95% CI0.83 to 0.91) and 0.93 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.96), respectively. As compared with lowest CRF, with intermediate CRF, the summary RRs for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality were 0.67 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.74), 0.60 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.69) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.84), respectively, and with highest CRF were 0.47 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.56), 0.49 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.56) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.70), respectively.ConclusionOur analysis showed inverse dose–response associations of CRF with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality, which provides evidence for public health recommendations for preventing all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42020208883.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Abdul Hafeez Nasir ◽  
Rab Nawaz ◽  
Rizwan Haider ◽  
Muhammad Atif Irshad

This study aimed to assess the health effects of emissions released by cement industries and allied activities, such as mining and transportation, in the salt range area of district Chakwal, Pakistan. DISPER was used to estimate dispersion and contribution of source emission by cement industries and allied activities to surface accumulation of selected pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NOx, and O3). To assess the long-term effects of pollutants on human health within the radius of 500 m to 3 km, Air Q+ software was used, which was designed by the World Health Organization (WHO). One-year average monitoring data of selected pollutants, coordinates, health data, and population data were used as input data for the model. Data was collected on lung cancer mortality among different age groups (25+ and 30+), infant post-neonatal mortality, mortality due to respiratory disease, and all-cause mortality due to PM2.5 and NO2. Results showed that PM2.5 with the year-long concentration of 27.3 ug/m3 contributes a 9.9% attributable proportion (AP) to lung cancer mortality in adults aged 25+, and 13.8% AP in adults age 30+. Baseline incidence is 44.25% per 100,000 population. PM10 with the year-long concentration of 57.4 ug/m3 contributes 16.96% AP to infant post-neonatal mortality and baseline incidence is 53.86% per 1000 live births in the country. NO2 with the year-long concentration of 14.33 ug/m3 contributes 1.73% AP to all-cause mortality. Results obtained by a simulated 10% reduction in pollutant concentration showed that proper mitigation measures for reduction of pollutants’ concentration should be applied to decrease the rate of mortalities and morbidities. Furthermore, the study showed that PM2.5 and PM10 are significantly impacting the human health in the nearby villages, even after mitigation measures were taken by the selected cement industries. The study provides a roadmap to policymakers and stakeholders for environmental and health risk management in the area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 15-22
D.  G. Zaridze ◽  
A.  F. Mukeria ◽  
O.  V. Shangina ◽  
I.  S. Stilidi

Abstract: The presented clinical and epidemiological study is the world»s first large prospective study of the effect of smoking cessation after lung cancer (LC) diagnosis on the prognosis. Follow‑up of 517 patients with NSCLC for 7 years in average showed that continued smoking after diagnosis is a serious negative prognostic factor. At the same time smoking cessation improves OS and PFS by 22,6 months and specific cancer mortality by 22,8 months; reduces the risk of all‑cause mortality by 33 %, the risk of progression by 30 % and the risk of specific cancer mortality by 25 %. Almost 60 % of patients in our study continued smoking after diagnosis. Consequently, they had avoidable excess mortality which eventually reduced their life by 2 years.The positive effect of smoking cessation after diagnosis found in our study significantly exceeds the «meaningful benefit» (improvement in median overall survival by 2,5–6 months) for antineoplastic agents proposed by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). Moreover, the study suggests that the benefits of smoking cessation after LC diagnosis are at least equal or superior to the significant results obtained in clinical studies of the effectiveness of innovative treatments.We hope that the results of our study will contribute to the inclusion of smoking cessation in clinical guidelines for the treatment of NSCLC and other cancers. The treatment program for cancer patients should include evidence‑based methods of smoking cessation presented in the form of «Clinical Guidelines for Smoking Cessation for Cancer Patients».Treating smoking in cancer patients is cost‑effective for the health care system, especially when compared to other treat‑ments. Conversely, continuing smoking after diagnosis significantly increases treatment costs.The introduction of recommendations on smoking cessation and treatment of nicotine addiction into the practice will improve the overall mortality rate by 30–35 % in more than 60,000 patients annually diagnosed with lung cancer in Russia. The clinical value of this method is obvious, since it has been proven to be highly efficient in improving the life expectancy of patients, and, ultimately, in reducing cancer mortality in Russia.

Nanoscale ◽  
2022 ◽  
Yonghui Wang ◽  
Binfan Chen ◽  
Zhidi He ◽  
Bin Tu ◽  
Pengfei Zhao ◽  

Lung cancer is the top cause of cancer mortality in the world. Distant metastasis leads to high mortality. Abdominal metastasis of lung cancer is characterized by a very poor prognosis...

2022 ◽  
Yuehan Zhang ◽  
Kathryn M. Leifheit ◽  
Otis W. Brawley ◽  
Roland Thorpe ◽  
Darrell Gaskin ◽  

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