Energy Intake
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Amanda N Davis ◽  
William A Myers ◽  
Jorge Eduardo Rico ◽  
Lin Feng Wang ◽  
Crystal Chang ◽  

Abstract The fungal isolate myriocin inhibits serine palmitoyltransferase and de novo ceramide synthesis in rodents; however, the effects of myriocin on ceramide concentrations and metabolism have not been previously investigated in ruminants. In our study, twelve non-lactating crossbred ewes received an intravenous bolus of myriocin (0, 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg/body weight [BW]; CON, LOW, MOD, or HIGH) every 48 h for 17 d. Ewes consumed a high-energy diet from d 1-14, and were nutrient-restricted (straw only) from d 15-17. Blood was collected preprandial and at 1, 6, and 12 h relative to bolus and nutrient restriction. Tissues were collected following euthanasia on d 17. Plasma was analyzed for free fatty acids (FFA), glucose, and insulin. Plasma and tissue ceramides were quantified using mass spectrometry. HIGH selectively decreased metabolizable energy intake, BW, and plasma insulin, and increased plasma FFA (Dose, P < 0.05). Myriocin linearly decreased plasma very-long-chain (VLC) ceramide and dihydroceramide (DHCer) by d 13 (Linear, P < 0.05). During nutrient restriction, fold-change in FFA was lower with increasing dose (P < 0.05). Nutrient restriction increased plasma C16:0-Cer, an effect suppressed by MOD and HIGH (Dose × Time, P < 0.05). Myriocin linearly decreased most ceramide and DHCer species in liver and omental and mesenteric adipose, VLC ceramide and DHCer in pancreas, and C18:0-Cer in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (Linear, P ≤ 0.05). We conclude that the intravenous delivery of 0.3 mg of myriocin/kg of BW/48 h decreases circulating and tissue ceramide without modifying energy intake in ruminants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Karyn D. Rode ◽  
Charles T. Robbins ◽  
Craig A. Stricker ◽  
Brian D. Taras ◽  
Troy N. Tollefson

AbstractStudies of predator feeding ecology commonly focus on energy intake. However, captive predators have been documented to selectively feed to optimize macronutrient intake. As many apex predators experience environmental changes that affect prey availability, limitations on selective feeding can affect energetics and health. We estimated the protein:fat ratio of diets consumed by wild polar bears using a novel isotope-based approach, measured protein:fat ratios selected by zoo polar bears offered dietary choice and examined potential energetic and health consequences of overconsuming protein. Dietary protein levels selected by wild and zoo polar bears were low and similar to selection observed in omnivorous brown bears, which reduced energy intake requirements by 70% compared with lean meat diets. Higher-protein diets fed to zoo polar bears during normal care were concurrent with high rates of mortality from kidney disease and liver cancer. Our results suggest that polar bears have low protein requirements and that limitations on selective consumption of marine mammal blubber consequent to climate change could meaningfully increase their energetic costs. Although bear protein requirements appear lower than those of other carnivores, the energetic and health consequences of protein overconsumption identified in this study have the potential to affect a wide range of taxa.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 2574
Ilianna Lourida ◽  
Jolanda M. A. Boer ◽  
Ruth Teh ◽  
Ngaire Kerse ◽  
Nuno Mendonça ◽  

Physical activity and protein intake are associated with ageing-related outcomes, including loss of muscle strength and functional decline, so may contribute to strategies to improve healthy ageing. We investigated the cross-sectional associations between physical activity or sedentary behaviour and protein intake patterns in community-dwelling older adults across five countries. Self-reported physical activity and dietary intake data were obtained from two cohort studies (Newcastle 85+ Study, UK; LiLACS, New Zealand Māori and Non-Māori) and three national food consumption surveys (DNFCS, The Netherlands; FINDIET, Finland; INRAN-SCAI, Italy). Associations between physical activity and total protein intake, number of eating occasions providing protein, number of meals with specified protein thresholds, and protein intake distribution over the day (calculated as a coefficient of variance) were assessed by regression and repeated measures ANOVA models adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity was associated with higher total protein intake and more eating occasions containing protein, although associations were mostly explained by higher energy intake. Comparable associations were observed for sedentary behaviour in older adults in Italy. Evidence for older people with higher physical activity or less sedentary behaviour achieving more meals with specified protein levels was mixed across the five countries. A skewed protein distribution was observed, with most protein consumed at midday and evening meals without significant differences between physical activity or sedentary behaviour levels. Findings from this multi-study analysis indicate there is little evidence that total protein and protein intake patterns, irrespective of energy intake, differ by physical activity or sedentary behaviour levels in older adults.

Brianna S. Salagaras ◽  
Kristen L. MacKenzie-Shalders ◽  
Gary John Slater ◽  
Chris McLellan ◽  
Vernon G. Coffey

This research aims to explore the effect of increased carbohydrate availability intervention on energy intake and distribution in professional Australian Football athletes. Six 24-h energy and macronutrient intakes were quantified (n= 19 males; age 24 ±4 y, stature 187 ±8 cm, mass 87 ±9 kg) using photographic food diaries and Foodworks analyses. Energy expenditure was estimated for the same period using GeneActiv accelerometers. During three control days, athletes had ad libitum access to food, while the three intervention days increased carbohydrate availability, through greater prompting and access to carbohydrate foods. Daily energy intake was higher during intervention (185 ±40 kJ/kg/d) compared with control (172 ±31 kJ/kg/d; p<0.05) but remained below estimated expenditure, and carbohydrate intake was also greater with intervention (5.0 ±0.2 g/kg/d) than control (4.0 ±0.2 g/kg/d; p<0.05). Expenditure was highest during the morning which coincided with lowest intake on all days, while the intervention was associated with greater carbohydrate intake in the morning (0.6 g/kg, p< 0.05) compared with control. Increasing availability of carbohydrate during high-load training generated a modest increase in carbohydrate and energy intake, and the intervention was most effective in improving carbohydrate intake during mornings. Novelty Bullets • Increased access and provision of carbohydrate foods increased carbohydrate consumption and energy intake on high training load days. • Daily distribution of energy intake can be modified through actively promoting carbohydrate consumption.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 2530
Navika Gangrade ◽  
Janet Figueroa ◽  
Tashara M. Leak

Snacking contributes a significant portion of adolescents’ daily energy intake and is associated with poor overall diet and increased body mass index. Adolescents from low socioeconomic status (SES) households have poorer snacking behaviors than their higher-SES counterparts. However, it is unclear if the types of food/beverages and nutrients consumed during snacking differ by SES among adolescents. Therefore, this study examines SES disparities in the aforementioned snacking characteristics by analyzing the data of 7132 adolescents (12–19 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2018. Results reveal that adolescents from low-income households (poverty-to-income ratio (PIR) ≤ 1.3) have lower odds of consuming the food/beverage categories “Milk and Dairy” (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.95; p = 0.007) and “Fruits” (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50–0.78; p = 0.001) as snacks and higher odds of consuming “Beverages” (aOR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.19-1.76; p = 0.001) compared to those from high-income households (PIR > 3.5). Additionally, adolescents from low- and middle-income (PIR > 1.3–3.5) households consume more added sugar (7.98 and 7.78 g vs. 6.66 g; p = 0.012, p = 0.026) and less fiber (0.78 and 0.77 g vs. 0.84 g; p = 0.044, p = 0.019) from snacks compared to their high-income counterparts. Future research is necessary to understand factors that influence snacking among adolescents, and interventions are needed, especially for adolescents from low-SES communities.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 2197
Anna Jansson ◽  
Patricia Harris ◽  
Sara Larsdotter Davey ◽  
Nanna Luthersson ◽  
Sveinn Ragnarsson ◽  

Straw’s low energy content means it is a roughage option for horses with low energy requirements. Previously, in a field study, straw was associated with an increased risk for gastric ulcers. This study evaluated the effect on gastric ulcers, metabolic profile and behaviour of replacing, in a forage-only ration, 50% of the daily allowance with wheat straw. Six equines were studied in a 2 × 21-day cross-over design. The control diet (CON: 100% grass forage) and the straw diet (S: 50% grass forage and 50% straw [DM basis]) were iso-energetic. Gastroscopy was performed prior to the study and on day 21 and blood samples were collected and behavioural observations were performed. Diet did not affect squamous or glandular gastric ulcer scores (p > 0.05). Feed intake time was longer (p < 0.05) plus energy intake and plasma insulin concentrations were lower on diet S compared to CON (p < 0.0001). Plasma serotonin concentrations tended to be higher on diet S compared to CON (p = 0.05). The results suggest that good hygienic quality wheat straw can be included for up to 50% of the diet without causing gastric ulcers and that it can extend feeding time and promote a metabolic profile more suitable for overweight horses.

2021 ◽  
Dafiny Rodrigues Silva Praxedes ◽  
Isabele Rejane Oliveira Maranhão Pureza ◽  
Laís Gomes Lessa Vasconcelos ◽  
André Eduardo Silva Júnior ◽  
Mateus de Lima Macena ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Nancy López-Olmedo ◽  
Ana V. Diez-Roux ◽  
Carolina Pérez-Ferrer ◽  
Francisco-Javier Prado-Galbarro ◽  
Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez ◽  

Background: Little is known about the potential impact of climate change on food systems and diet. We aimed to estimate the association of changes in rainfall and temperatures with consumption of unprocessed and processed foods among residents of Mexican cities by climate region.Methods: We analyzed 3,312 participants of the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey with dietary intake and sociodemographic information linked to historical rainfall and temperature data collected by the Mexican National Weather Service. We classified foods as unprocessed, processed, or ultra-processed. We performed multilevel linear regression to estimate the association of annual change in rainfalls (for each 0.5 mm decrease) and temperatures (for each 0.1°C increase) at municipality level over the past 5 years with consumption of processed and unprocessed foods measured as the contribution to total energy intake. We investigated whether associations differed by climate region (tropical, temperate, and arid).Results: Each 0.5 mm annual decrease in precipitation was associated with lower consumption of unprocessed foods and higher consumption of ultra-processed foods [mean differences in percent contribution to total energy intake −0.009% (95% CI: −0.019, &lt; −0.001) and 0.011% (95% CI: 0.001, 0.021), respectively]. Each 0.1 degree Celsius annual increase in temperature was also associated with lower consumption of unprocessed and higher consumption of ultra-processed foods [mean differences in percent contribution to total energy intake was −0.03 (95% CI: −0.05, −0.01) and 0.03% (95% CI: &lt;0.01, 0.05)]. When stratified by climate region these associations were only observed in tropical regions.Conclusions: Decreases in rainfalls and increases in temperature were associated with lower consumption of unprocessed foods but higher consumption of ultra-processed foods, especially in tropical regions. Previous studies have established how food production affects the climate, our study suggests that climate change could, in turn, reinforce modern food production, closing a vicious circle with clear negative implications for planetary health.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
İsmail Mücahit Alptekin ◽  
Ece Erdoğan ◽  
Aylin İşler ◽  
Esma Cansu Yanalak ◽  
Funda Pınar Çakiroğlu ◽  

Purpose Previous studies have reported that dietary fibers such as polydextrose and maltodextrin can reduce food intake; however, the studies on the differences of this effect are insufficient. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of dietary fibers maltodextrin and polydextrose on alterations of short-term satiety, energy intake and postprandial blood glucose in healthy females. Design/methodology/approach This study was designed as a randomized, crossover and double blind research. For this purpose, 21 healthy females consumed a milkshake containing 0 g (control), 15 g polydextrose (PDX) and 15 g maltodextrin (MDX), and an ad libitum lunch meal was served 150 min later. Subjective appetite scores (hunger, satiety, prospective food consumption and desire to eat) were measured using a visual analog scale. Appetite scores and blood glucose were measured before preload and once per 15 min after milkshake consumption. Findings Visual analog scale scores showed that PDX had an improved effect on satiety and hunger feelings. Compared to the control, dietary fiber increased the Area Under Curve (AUC) scores of satiety (p < 0.001) and decreased the AUC scores of hunger (p < 0.001), prospective food consumption (p < 0.001) and desire to eat (p < 0.001). Energy intake during ad libitum meal was significantly lower in PDX (Control: 862 (54.3) Kcal versus PDX: 679 (35.4) Kcal and MDX: 780 (49.3) Kcal. Moreover, the blood glucose levels were significantly lower in MDX. Originality/value This study conducted with healthy females demonstrated that PDX was more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake, and that postprandial blood glucose were within more healthy levels in MDX.

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