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2021 ◽  
pp. 680-695
Author(s):  
Harald Schindler ◽  
Volker Hoffmann ◽  
Manfred Hermanns

Due to international agreements, there is a requirement to reduce ammonia emissions in beet sugar factories and to comply with the specified limit values. After looking at the sources of ammonia emissions in sugar factories, various ways of reducing these emissions are shown. In case of carbonatation exhaust gases in addition to reducing emissions, there is also the option of extracting heat from the exhaust gases and using it for technological purposes, which reduces the total energy consumption.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 139
Author(s):  
Jae Wook Chung ◽  
Gabriel Gerner ◽  
Ekaterina Ovsyannikova ◽  
Alexander Treichler ◽  
Urs Baier ◽  
...  

Background: The provision of safe sanitation services is essential for human well-being and environmental integrity, but it is often lacking in less developed communities with insufficient financial and technical resources. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been suggested as an alternative sanitation technology, producing value-added products from faecal waste. We evaluated the HTC technology for raw human waste treatment in terms of resource recovery. In addition, we constructed and tested a low-cost HTC reactor for its technical feasibility. Methods: Raw human faeces were hydrothermally treated in a mild severity range (≤ 200 °C and ≤ 1 hr). The total energy recovery was analysed from the energy input, higher heating value (HHV) of hydrochar and biomethane potential of process water. The nutrient contents were recovered through struvite precipitation employing process water and acid leachate from hydrochar ash. A bench-scale low-cost reactor (BLR) was developed using widely available materials and tested for human faeces treatment. Results: The hydrochar had HHVs (23.2 - 25.2 MJ/kg) comparable to bituminous coal. The calorific value of hydrochar accounted for more than 90% of the total energy recovery. Around 78% of phosphorus in feedstock was retained in hydrochar ash, while 15% was in process water. 72% of the initial phosphorus can be recovered as struvite when deficient Mg and NH4 are supplemented. The experiments with BLR showed stable operation for faecal waste treatment with an energy efficiency comparable to a commercial reactor system. Conclusions: This research presents a proof of concept for the hydrothermal treatment of faecal waste as an alternative sanitation technology, by providing a quantitative evaluation of the resource recovery of energy and nutrients. The experiments with the BLR demonstrate the technical feasibility of the low-cost reactor and support its further development on a larger scale to reach practical implementation.


MAUSAM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 48 (3) ◽  
pp. 367-374
Author(s):  
M.D. MAHBUB ALAM ◽  
SULTANA SHAFEE

  ABSTRACT. Upper-air data of 0000 UTC for standard isobaric surfaces at surface, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 200, 150 and 100 hPa levels for the different cyclonic periods in the last decade were considered for study. The dry static energy, the latent heat energy, the moist static energy and the total energy and their vertical distribution were studied in the surroundings of the Bay of Bengal in relation to the movement of the cyclone and their ultimate landfall. The effects of different  tropospheric energies considering the pressure as a vertical coordinate are discussed with the help of graphs.    


2021 ◽  
Vol 922 (2) ◽  
pp. 93
Author(s):  
Francois Hammer ◽  
Jianling Wang ◽  
Marcel S. Pawlowski ◽  
Yanbin Yang ◽  
Piercarlo Bonifacio ◽  
...  

Abstract Here we show that precise Gaia EDR3 proper motions have provided robust estimates of 3D velocities, angular momentum, and total energy for 40 Milky Way dwarfs. The results are statistically robust and are independent of the Milky Way mass profile. Dwarfs do not behave like long-lived satellites of the Milky Way because of their excessively large velocities, angular momenta, and total energies. Comparing them to other MW halo populations, we find that many are at first passage, ≤2 Gyr ago, i.e., more recent than the passage of Sagittarius, ∼4–5 Gyr ago. We suggest that this is in agreement with the stellar populations of all dwarfs, for which we find that a small fraction of young stars cannot be excluded. We also find that dwarf radial velocities contribute too little to their kinetic energy when compared to satellite systems with motions only regulated by gravity, and some other mechanism must be at work such as ram pressure. The latter may have preferentially reduced radial velocities when dwarf progenitors entered the halo until they lost their gas. It could also explain why most dwarfs lie near their pericenter. We also discover a novel large-scale structure perpendicular to the Milky Way disk, which is made by 20% of dwarfs orbiting or counter-orbiting with the Sagittarius dwarf.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shasho Megersa ◽  
Kedir Jemal ◽  
Buzayehu Desisa

Abstract Biomass based traditional energy has been the main energy supply in Ethiopia. Efforts are being made to shift to modern bioenergy utilization but the level of contribution of modern bioenergy to the total energy supply of the country’s supply is not computed. In this synthesis we described the contribution of bioenergy to modern energy utilization in the country. Data used here was retrieved from the country’s official reports and published literatures. Access to modern cooking services in the country was particularly focused on and both biogas feedstock productivities and biogas processing efficiencies were calculated. Herfindahl Index (HI) was calculated to observe the change in the diversity of the total primary energy supply due to bioenergy in the country. Results indicated that only a few households, 10%, had access to modern bioenergy services. Less than 0.10% of households have a biogas digester. The HI values showed the low diversity of the energy supply and the very limited contribution of modern bioenergy. This synthesis indicated that the contribution of modern bioenergy to the energy supply of the country is very low. Very low difference was observed between Herfindahl Indexes with and without considering modern bioenergy in the total primary energy supply (TPES) of the country is also found to be insignificant. Results found indicated lower diversity of the energy supply of Ethiopia and very limited contribution of modern bioenergy to the diversity and security of the energy supply.


2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 43-47
Author(s):  
Kamil Khafizov

The article is devoted to the search for ways to reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere when performing technological operations in agricultural production. It is proposed to calculate the efficiency of using machine and tractor units based on the methods of physical economics, when not a monetary unit is used as an indicator of efficiency, but an energy unit, which is an indirect indicator of saving or increasing emissions of carbon dioxide. It is substantiated that a decrease in total energy costs when performing technological operations for the production of grain and other crops directly leads to a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Examples of computational experiments are given to identify the most optimal brand of a tractor and optimize the parameters of the working width and speed of the seeding machine-tractor unit K-5250 + Agromaster, leading to a decrease in total energy costs and, accordingly, to a decrease in carbon dioxide emissions and carbon sequestration from the air by reducing losses harvest


Author(s):  
Christ Barriga P ◽  
Lesly Aliaga G. ◽  
Jorge Bermejo N. ◽  
Pamela Catari C. ◽  
Romina Martinez S. ◽  
...  

Peru experienced the oil rush due to the discovery of reserves, but since the Camisea project was found in the Cuzco region, oil has been in decline, Peru is rated too low competitiveness rates below countries such as Ecuador and Colombia. The hydrocarbons sector accounted for 54% of the total energy tender in 2012. The oil and gas industry has advanced technologically. Today, the technological challenges are focused on taking advantage of unconventional resources having a strong focus on process safety, environmental management, and fuel quality. In a new era of high volatility in the oil and gas price, technology is crucial to maximizing the value; among them, the Modernization Project of the Talara Refinery and its process is announced. Peru is perfecting technologies to take advantage of gas and oil that are difficult to access so that its role in the Peruvian economy is fundamental.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 4152
Author(s):  
Mericarmen Peralta ◽  
Celine Heskey ◽  
David Shavlik ◽  
Synnove Knutsen ◽  
Andrew Mashchak ◽  
...  

Sugar intake is a potentially important aspect of diet which has not previously been validated in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). We sought to validate the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) measurement of total sugars, added sugars, sucrose, and fructose against multiple 24-h dietary recalls (recalls) in AHS-2 participants. Food consumption data from a self-administered FFQ and six recalls from 904 participants were combined with nutrient profile data to estimate daily sugar intake. Validity was evaluated among all participants and by race. FFQ and recall means were compared and correlation coefficients (Spearman’s, energy-adjusted log-transformed Pearson’s, deattenuated Pearson’s) were calculated. Mean total energy, total sugars, and fructose intake were higher in the FFQ, whereas added sugars and sucrose were higher in recalls. The energy-adjusted (log-transformed) deattenuated correlations among all participants were: total sugars (r = 0.42, 95% CI 0.32–0.52), added sugars (r = 0.50, 95% CI 0.36–0.59), sucrose (r = 0.32, 95% CI 0.23–0.42), and fructose (r = 0.50, 95% CI 0.40–0.59). We observed moderate validity for added sugars and fructose and low-moderate validity for total sugars and sucrose measured by the AHS-2 FFQ in this population. Dietary sugar estimates from this FFQ may be useful in assessing possible associations of sugars intake with health outcomes.


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