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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Sheel Sindhu Manohar ◽  
Sparsh Mittal ◽  
Hemangee K. Kapoor

In the deep sub-micron region, “spin-transfer torque RAM” (STT-RAM ) suffers from “read-disturbance error” (RDE) , whereby a read operation disturbs the stored data. Mitigation of RDE requires restore operations, which imposes latency and energy penalties. Hence, RDE presents a crucial threat to the scaling of STT-RAM. In this paper, we offer three techniques to reduce the restore overhead. First, we avoid the restore operations for those reads, where the block will get updated at a higher level cache in the near future. Second, we identify read-intensive blocks using a lightweight mechanism and then migrate these blocks to a small SRAM buffer. On a future read to these blocks, the restore operation is avoided. Third, for data blocks having zero value, a write operation is avoided, and only a flag is set. Based on this flag, both read and restore operations to this block are avoided. We combine these three techniques to design our final policy, named CORIDOR. Compared to a baseline policy, which performs restore operation after each read, CORIDOR achieves a 31.6% reduction in total energy and brings the relative CPI (cycle-per-instruction) to 0.64×. By contrast, an ideal RDE-free STT-RAM saves 42.7% energy and brings the relative CPI to 0.62×. Thus, our CORIDOR policy achieves nearly the same performance as an ideal RDE-free STT-RAM cache. Also, it reaches three-fourths of the energy-saving achieved by the ideal RDE-free cache. We also compare CORIDOR with four previous techniques and show that CORIDOR provides higher restore energy savings than these techniques.

Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 82
Luciana Debs ◽  
Jamie Metzinger

The present research analyzes the impact of nine factors related to household demographics, building equipment, and building characteristics towards a home’s total energy consumption while controlling for climate. To do this, we have surveyed single-family owned houses from the 2015 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) dataset and controlled the analysis by Building America climate zones. Our findings are based on descriptive statistics and multiple regression models, and show that for a median-sized home in three of the five climate zones, heating equipment is still the main contributor to a household’s total energy consumed, followed by home size. Social-economic factors and building age were found relevant for some regions, but often contributed less than size and heating equipment towards total energy consumption. Water heater and education were not found to be statistically relevant in any of the regions. Finally, solar power was only found to be a significant factor in one of the regions, positively contributing to a home’s total energy consumed. These findings are helpful for policymakers to evaluate the specificities of climate regions in their jurisdiction, especially guiding homeowners towards more energy-efficient heating equipment and home configurations, such as reduced size.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 297
Ines Perrar ◽  
Ute Alexy ◽  
Nicole Jankovic

The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the habitual lifestyles of children and adolescents, in particular, due to the closure of kindergartens and schools. To investigate the impact of the pandemic on nutrients and food intake of children and adolescents in Germany, we analyzed repeated 3-day weighed dietary records from 108 participants (3–18 years; females: n = 45, males: n = 63) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Polynomial mixed-effects regression models were used to identify prospective changes in dietary intake (total energy (TEI), carbohydrates, fat, protein, free sugar, ultra-processed foods, fruits and vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and juices) before and during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. For the current analysis, we have chosen the first months of the pandemic (March 2020–August 2020), as this was the period with the most restrictions in Germany so far (kindergarten, school and restaurant closures; contact and outdoor activity restrictions). No significant changes in either the selected nutrients or food groups were observed. However, children and adolescents recorded a significantly lower TEI during the pandemic (β = −109.65, p = 0.0062). Results remained significant after the exclusion of participants with under-reported records (β = −95.77, p = 0.0063). While macronutrient intake did not change, descriptive data indicate a non-significant decrease in sugar sweetened beverages and ultra-processed foods intake. We suggest that children and adolescents from high socioeconomic families may have adapted lifestyle changes during the pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Rebecca Rimbach ◽  
Yosuke Yamada ◽  
Hiroyuki Sagayama ◽  
Philip N. Ainslie ◽  
Lene F. Anderson ◽  

AbstractLow total energy expenditure (TEE, MJ/d) has been a hypothesized risk factor for weight gain, but repeatability of TEE, a critical variable in longitudinal studies of energy balance, is understudied. We examine repeated doubly labeled water (DLW) measurements of TEE in 348 adults and 47 children from the IAEA DLW Database (mean ± SD time interval: 1.9 ± 2.9 y) to assess repeatability of TEE, and to examine if TEE adjusted for age, sex, fat-free mass, and fat mass is associated with changes in weight or body composition. Here, we report that repeatability of TEE is high for adults, but not children. Bivariate Bayesian mixed models show no among or within-individual correlation between body composition (fat mass or percentage) and unadjusted TEE in adults. For adults aged 20–60 y (N = 267; time interval: 7.4 ± 12.2 weeks), increases in adjusted TEE are associated with weight gain but not with changes in body composition; results are similar for subjects with intervals >4 weeks (N = 53; 29.1 ± 12.8 weeks). This suggests low TEE is not a risk factor for, and high TEE is not protective against, weight or body fat gain over the time intervals tested.

Rieke L. Meister ◽  
Michael Groth ◽  
Julian H. W. Jürgens ◽  
Shuo Zhang ◽  
Jan H. Buhk ◽  

Abstract Purpose To compare the image quality, examination time, and total energy release of a standardized pediatric brain tumor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol performed with and without compressed sensitivity encoding (C-SENSE). Recently introduced as an acceleration technique in MRI, we hypothesized that C‑SENSE would improve image quality, reduce the examination time and radiofrequency-induced energy release compared with conventional examination in a pediatric brain tumor protocol. Methods This retrospective study included 22 patients aged 2.33–18.83 years with different brain tumor types who had previously undergone conventional MRI examination and underwent follow-up C‑SENSE examination. Both examinations were conducted with a 3.0-Tesla device and included pre-contrast and post-contrast T1-weighted turbo-field-echo, T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Image quality was assessed in four anatomical regions of interest (tumor area, cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and posterior fossa) using a 5-point scale. Reader preference between the standard and C‑SENSE images was evaluated. The total examination duration and energy deposit were compared based on scanner log file analysis. Results Relative to standard examinations, C‑SENSE examinations were characterized by shorter total examination times (26.1 ± 3.93 vs. 22.18 ± 2.31 min; P = 0.001), reduced total energy deposit (206.0 ± 19.7 vs. 92.3 ± 18.2 J/kg; P < 0.001), and higher image quality (overall P < 0.001). Conclusion C‑SENSE contributes to the improvement of image quality, reduction of scan times and radiofrequency-induced energy release relative to the standard protocol in pediatric brain tumor MRI.

2022 ◽  
Regina Oeschger ◽  
Lilian Roos ◽  
Thomas Wyss ◽  
Mark J Buller ◽  
Bertil J Veenstra ◽  

ABSTRACT Introduction In military service, marching is an important, common, and physically demanding task. Minimizing dropouts, maintaining operational readiness during the march, and achieving a fast recovery are desirable because the soldiers have to be ready for duty, sometimes shortly after an exhausting task. The present field study investigated the influence of the soldiers’ cardiorespiratory fitness on physiological responses during a long-lasting and challenging 34 km march. Materials and Methods Heart rate (HR), body core temperature (BCT), total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, motivation, and pain sensation were investigated in 44 soldiers (20.3 ± 1.3 years, 178.5 ± 7.0 cm, 74.8 ± 9.8 kg, body mass index: 23.4 ± 2.7 kg × m−2, peak oxygen uptake ($\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak): 54.2 ± 7.9 mL × kg−1 × min−1) during almost 8 hours of marching. All soldiers were equipped with a portable electrocardiogram to record HR and an accelerometer on the hip, all swallowed a telemetry pill to record BCT, and all filled out a pre- and post-march questionnaire. The influence of aerobic capacity on the physiological responses during the march was examined by dividing the soldiers into three fitness groups according to their $\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak. Results The group with the lowest aerobic capacity ($\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak: 44.9 ± 4.8 mL × kg−1 × min−1) compared to the group with the highest aerobic capacity ($\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak: 61.7 ± 2.2 mL × kg−1 × min−1) showed a significantly higher (P &lt; .05) mean HR (133 ± 9 bpm and 125 ± 8 bpm, respectively) as well as peak BCT (38.6 ± 0.3 and 38.4 ± 0.2 °C, respectively) during the march. In terms of recovery ability during the break, no significant differences could be identified between the three groups in either HR or BCT. The energy deficit during the march was remarkably high, as the soldiers could only replace 22%, 26%, and 36% of the total energy expenditure in the lower, middle, and higher fitness group, respectively. The cardiorespiratory fittest soldiers showed a significantly higher motivation to perform when compared to the least cardiorespiratory fit soldiers (P = .002; scale from 1 [not at all] to 10 [extremely]; scale difference of 2.3). A total of nine soldiers (16%) had to end marching early: four soldiers (21%) in the group with the lowest aerobic capacity, five (28%) in the middle group, and none in the highest group. Conclusion Soldiers with a high $\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak showed a lower mean HR and peak BCT throughout the long-distance march, as well as higher performance motivation, no dropouts, and lower energy deficit. All soldiers showed an enormous energy deficit; therefore, corresponding nutritional strategies are recommended.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 381
Paraskevi N. Zaza ◽  
Anastasios Sepetis ◽  
Pantelis G. Bagos

The continuous operation and the specialized conditions needed for safely delivering healthcare services make hospitals among the most expensive buildings. Several studies in different countries have investigated the potential role and contribution of macroscopic indices of hospitals in total energy requirements. In this work, we tried to investigate the energy requirements of Greek hospitals in terms of cost. We collected data from all public hospitals in Greece over a 2 year period (2018–2019) and evaluated the contribution of various factors in the total energy cost. The data revealed large variability by region and by hospital, even regarding structures of the same category and size. The analysis also showed that structural and operational data of each hospital differently influence the hospitals’ energy requirements. Using regression methods, we developed two models for calculating annual energy costs. One only contains hospital structural data (number of beds, type of hospital, number of employees, and the non/use of alternative energy sources such as natural gas), and it reached an R² of 0.84. The second model contains not only structural but also operational data from each hospital (number of the internal patients, number of surgeries and number of medical imaging tests), and it reached an R² of 0.87. The former model is easier to compute since it only relies on data that can be easily gathered, but the latter has slightly better performance. These tools can help the Ministry of Health and hospitals’ management to identify the factors that contribute to the energy cost in order to plan targeted interventions, be well-prepared regarding budgeting, and be able to progressively measure, monitor, and improve the environmental footprint of hospitals by investing in renewable energy resources.

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