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Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1359
Sarah M. Thunberg ◽  
Eugénie S. Euskirchen ◽  
John E. Walsh ◽  
Kyle M. Redilla

Evapotranspiration (ET) is a relevant component of the surface moisture budget and is associated with different drivers. The interrelated drivers cause variations at daily to interannual timescales. This study uses structural equation modeling to diagnose the drivers over an ensemble of 45 high-latitude sites, each of which provides at least several years of in situ measurements, including latent heat fluxes derived from eddy covariance flux towers. The sites are grouped by vegetation type (tundra, forest) and the presence or absence of permafrost to determine how the relative importance of different drivers depends on land surface characteristics. Factor analysis is used to quantify the common variance among the variables, while a path analysis procedure is used to assess the independent contributions of different variables. The variability of ET at forest sites generally shows a stronger dependence on relative humidity, while ET at tundra sites is more temperature-limited than moisture-limited. The path analysis shows that ET has a stronger direct correlation with solar radiation than with any other measured variable. Wind speed has the largest independent contribution to ET variability. The independent contribution of solar radiation is smaller because solar radiation also affects ET through various other drivers. The independent contribution of wind speed is especially apparent at forest wetland sites. For both tundra and forest vegetation, temperature loads higher on the first factor when permafrost is present, implying that ET will become less sensitive to temperature as permafrost thaws.

2021 ◽  
Tatsunori Shibuya ◽  
Kazuyuki Sakaue ◽  
Hiroshi Ogawa ◽  
Daisuke Satoh ◽  
Thanh-Hung Dinh ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Bingbing Li ◽  
Nan Liu ◽  
Donghui Guo ◽  
Bo Li ◽  
Yan Liang ◽  

Abstract Background The connections between sleep quality and central obesity among reproductive-aged women are not clear. The study aimed to explore the association between sleep quality and central obesity among Chinese reproductive-aged women and identify the independent contributions of sociodemographic characteristics, health-related factors, and sleep quality to central obesity. Methods In this cross-sectional survey, the minimal sample sizes were 2404 subjects; 2449 Chinese women aged 18–49 participated in this study. Sleep quality was assessed by the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Central obesity as the outcome of interest was a binary variable; women were categorized as with versus without central obesity measured by waist circumference (WC). The independent contribution of sociodemographic characteristics (Cluster 1), health-related variables (Cluster 2), and sleep quality (Cluster 3) to central obesity was derived from the corresponding R2 change (individual R2 change/total R2 × 100%), using clustered multiple logistic regression analyses. Results The risk of central obesity increased significantly with poor sleep quality (assessed by global PSQI score) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.20 per SD increase; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28–3.78; P = 0.004], increased sleep disturbance score (adjusted OR = 1.11 per SD increase; 95% CI = 1.01–1.22; P = 0.042) and decreased subjective sleep quality score (adjusted OR = 0.81 per SD increase; 95% CI = 0.73–0.90; P < 0.001). The independent contribution of sleep quality was 9.9%, less than those of sociodemographic (73.3%) and health-related (16.8%) variables. Among complaints related to sleep disturbance, the inability to breathe comfortably, and having bad dreams showed significant associations with central obesity. Conclusions There exists some degree of correlation between sleep quality and central obesity among Chinese reproductive-aged women. These findings underscore the need for future public health guidelines to formulate some detailed strategies to improve sleep quality, such as preventing and intervening risk factors that influence sleep quality and suggesting optimal sleep duration, which might effectively reduce the incidence of central obesity in this population group.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Ferenc Kemény ◽  
Ágnes Lukács

Purpose: Studies on the interface between statistical learning and language are dominated by its role in word segmentation and association with grammar skills, while research on its role in lexical development is scarce. The current study is aimed at exploring whether and how statistical learning and verbal short-term memory are associated with lexical skills in typically developing German-speaker primary school children (Experiment 1) and Hungarian-speaking children with developmental language disorder (DLD, Experiment 2).Methods: We used the language-relevant Peabody Picture Vocabulary Tests to measure individual differences in vocabulary. Statistical learning skills were assessed with the Weather Prediction task, in which participants learn probabilistic cue-outcome associations based on item-based feedback. Verbal short-term memory span was assessed with the Forward digit span task.Results: Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to test the contribution of different functions to vocabulary size. In TD children, statistical learning skills had an independent contribution to vocabulary size over and above age, receptive grammatical abilities and short-term memory, whereas working memory did not have an independent contribution. The pattern was reverse in SLI: Vocabulary size was predicted by short-term memory skills over and above age, receptive grammar and statistical learning, whereas statistical learning had no independent contribution.Conclusion: Our results suggest that lexical development rely on different underlying memory processes in typical development and in developmental language disorder to different degrees. This qualitative difference is discussed in the light of different stages of lexical development, as well as the contribution of the different human memory systems to vocabulary acquisition.

Phillip J. Granberry ◽  
María Idalí Torres ◽  
Jeroan J. Allison ◽  
Sharina D. Person ◽  
Milagros C. Rosal

This research tests the independent contribution of social capital and the use of the internet to obtain health information to support maternal-child communication about peer pressure to have sex among Puerto Rican families. A sample of 413 Puerto Rican households in Springfield, MA provides the data to independently test these hypotheses. The results of a logistic regression model suggest that Puerto Rican mothers with increased social capital and who accessed the internet for health information are more likely to communicate with their adolescent children about peer pressure to have sex. The combination of these two mechanisms provide opportunities to convey culturally generated resources to Puerto Rican mothers to assist them in helping their children develop healthy sexual behaviors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 045205
Jessamyn Schertz ◽  
Elizabeth K. Johnson ◽  
Melissa Paquette-Smith

2021 ◽  
pp. 009164712198896
Elizabeth G. Ruffing ◽  
Dottie Oleson ◽  
James Tomlinson ◽  
Seong Hyun Park ◽  
Steven J. Sandage

The present study investigated the unique contributions of relational spirituality and humility factors to seminary students’ eudaimonic well-being in a diverse sample ( n = 111) of urban seminary students. Hypotheses were developed in conversation with this research on humility, seminary student formation, and virtue ethics. As hypothesized, the relational spirituality factors of differentiation of self and quest exploration each made a significant independent contribution in predicting students’ well-being over and above impression management. In addition, humility-cultivating practices and dispositional humility were modestly correlated and each made a significant independent contribution in predicting well-being over and above relational spirituality factors and impression management. Implications for future research and for seminary student formation are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Andrew J. Holliman ◽  
Daniel Waldeck ◽  
Bethany Jay ◽  
Summayah Murphy ◽  
Emily Atkinson ◽  

The purpose of this multi-study article was to investigate the roles of adaptability and social support in predicting a variety of psychological outcomes. Data were collected from Year 12 college students (N = 73; Study 1), university students (N = 102; Study 2), and non-studying members of the general public (N = 141; Study 3). Findings showed that, beyond variance attributable to social support, adaptability made a significant independent contribution to psychological wellbeing (life satisfaction, psychological wellbeing, flourishing, and general affect) and psychological distress across all studies. Beyond the effects of adaptability, social support was found to make a significant independent contribution to most wellbeing outcomes (but not psychological distress in university students). In a multi-group analysis comparing predictors of psychological wellbeing in university students and non-studying adults, where the same outcome measures were used (Study 4; N = 243), it was found that adaptability played a stronger role (relative to social support) for university students, whereas social support played a stronger role for non-studying adults. Finally, (contrary to expectations) there was no evidence of an interaction between adaptability and social support predicting psychological outcomes—adaptability and social support operated as independent main effects. These findings demonstrate the importance of adaptability and social support in uniquely predicting psychological wellbeing in different sample groups. It is argued here that these two factors, should be given greater consideration in discussions of psychological wellbeing, and are relevant to psychological wellbeing at different major developmental life stages.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 204201882110555
Jonathan Mertens ◽  
Luc F. Van Gaal ◽  
Sven M. Francque ◽  
Christophe De Block

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in western countries, affecting 25–30% of the general population and up to 65% in those with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes. Accumulation of visceral adipose tissue and insulin resistance (IR) contributes to NAFLD. NAFLD is not an innocent entity as it not only may cause nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis but also contribute to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. More and more people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are becoming overweight and present with features of IR, but the prevalence and impact of NAFLD in this population are still unclear. The utility of noninvasive screening tools for NAFLD in T1D is being explored. Recent data indicate that based upon ultrasonographic criteria NAFLD is present in 27% (ranging between 19% and 31%) of adults with T1D. Magnetic resonance imaging data indicate a prevalence rate of 8.6% (ranging between 2.1% and 18.6%). There are, however, multiple factors affecting these data, ranging from study design and referral bias to discrepancies in between diagnostic modalities. Individuals with T1D have a 7-fold higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular mortality is the most prominent cause of death in T1D. Patients with T1D and NALFD are also more prone to develop CVD, but the independent contribution of NAFLD to cardiovascular events has to be determined in this population. Furthermore, limited data in T1D also point towards a 2 to 3 times higher risk for microvascular complications in those with NAFLD. In this article, we will discuss epidemiological and diagnostic challenges of NAFLD in T1D, explore the link between IR and NAFLD and chronic complications, and examine the independent contribution of NAFLD to the presence of macro-, and microvascular complications.

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