Screening Tools
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2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Stephanie Jensen ◽  
Imani Abrahamsen ◽  
Mark Baumgarten ◽  
Jared Gallaher ◽  
Cynthia Feltner

2022 ◽  
Vol 122 ◽  
pp. 104168
Yi Huey Lim ◽  
Rochelle E. Watkins ◽  
Heather Jones ◽  
Natalie R. Kippin ◽  
Amy Finlay-Jones

Elena Jurevičienė ◽  
Greta Burneikaitė ◽  
Laimis Dambrauskas ◽  
Vytautas Kasiulevičius ◽  
Edita Kazėnaitė ◽  

Various comorbidities and multimorbidity frequently occur in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), leading to the overload of health care systems and increased mortality. We aimed to assess the impact of COPD on the probability and clustering of comorbidities. The cross-sectional analysis of the nationwide Lithuanian database was performed based on the entries of the codes of chronic diseases. COPD was defined on the code J44.8 entry and six-month consumption of bronchodilators. Descriptive statistics and odds ratios (ORs) for associations and agglomerative hierarchical clustering were carried out. 321,297 patients aged 40–79 years were included; 4834 of them had COPD. A significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), lung cancer, kidney diseases, and the association of COPD with six-fold higher odds of lung cancer (OR 6.66; p < 0.0001), a two-fold of heart failure (OR 2.61; p < 0.0001), and CVD (OR 1.83; p < 0.0001) was found. Six clusters in COPD males and five in females were pointed out, in patients without COPD—five and four clusters accordingly. The most prevalent cardiovascular cluster had no significant difference according to sex or COPD presence, but a different linkage of dyslipidemia was found. The study raises the need to elaborate adjusted multimorbidity case management and screening tools enabling better outcomes.

Megan B. Sands ◽  
Ian Wee ◽  
Meera Agar ◽  
Janette L. Vardy

Abstract Purpose Delirium leads to poor outcomes for patients and careers and has negative impacts on staff and service provision. Cancer rates in elderly populations are increasing and frequently, cancer diagnoses are a co-morbidity in the context of frailty. Data relating to the epidemiology of delirium in hospitalised cancer patients are limited. With the overarching purpose of improving delirium detection and reducing the morbidity and mortality of delirium in cancer patients, we reviewed the epidemiological data and approach to delirium detection in hospitalised, adult oncology patients. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched from January 1996 to August 2017. Key concepts were delirium, cancer, inpatient oncology and delirium screening/detection. Results Of 896 unique studies identified; 91 met full-text review criteria. Of 12 eligible studies, four applied recommended case ascertainment methods to all patients, three used delirium screening tools alone or with case ascertainment tools sub-optimally applied, four used tools not recommended for delirium screening or case ascertainment, one used the Confusion Assessment Method with insufficient information to determine if it met case ascertainment status. Two studies presented delirium incidence rates: 7.8%, and 17% respectively. Prevalence rates ranged from 18–33% for general medical or oncology wards; 42–58% for Acute Palliative Care Units (APCU); and for older cancer patients: 22% and 57%. Three studies reported reversibility; 26% and 49% respectively (APCUs) and 30% (older patients with cancer). Six studies had a low risk of bias according to QUADAS-2 criteria; all studies in the APCU setting were rated at higher risk of bias. Tool selection, study flow and recruitment bias reduced study quality. Conclusion The knowledge base for improved interventions and clinical care for adults with cancer and delirium is limited by the low number of studies. A clear distinction between screening tools and diagnostic tools is required to provide an improved understanding of the rates of delirium and its reversibility in this population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Sabira Taher ◽  
Naoko Muramatsu ◽  
Angela Odoms-Young ◽  
Nadine Peacock ◽  
C. Fagen Michael ◽  

Abstract Background Food insecurity (FI), the limited access to healthy food to live an active and healthy life, is a social determinant of health linked to poor dietary health and difficulty with disease management in the United States (U.S.). Healthcare experts support the adoption of validated screening tools within primary care practice to identify and connect FI patients to healthy and affordable food resources. Yet, a lack of standard practices limits uptake. The purpose of this study was to understand program processes and outcomes of primary care focused FI screening initiatives that may guide wide-scale program implementation. Methods This was an embedded multiple case study of two primary care-focused initiatives implemented in two diverse health systems in Chicago and Suburban Cook County that routinely screened patients for FI and referred them to onsite food assistance programs. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and an iterative process were used to collect/analyze qualitative data through semi-structured interviews with N = 19 healthcare staff. Intended program activities, outcomes, actors, implementation barriers/facilitators and overarching implementation themes were identified as a part of a cross-case analysis. Results Programs outcomes included: the number of patients screened, identified as FI and that participated in the onsite food assistance program. Study participants reported limited internal resources as implementation barriers for program activities. The implementation climate that leveraged the strength of community collaborations and aligned internal, implementation climate were critical facilitators that contributed to the flexibility of program activities that were tailored to fill gaps in resources and meet patient and clinician needs. Conclusion Highly adaptable programs and the healthcare context enhanced implementation feasibility across settings. These characteristics can support program uptake in other settings, but should be used with caution to preserve program fidelity. A foundational model for the development and testing of standard clinical practice was the product of this study.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000486742110671
Anne PF Wand ◽  
Roisin Browne ◽  
Tiffany Jessop ◽  
Carmelle Peisah

Objective: Self-harm is closely associated with suicide in older adults and may provide opportunity to intervene to prevent suicide. This study aimed to systematically review recent evidence for three components of aftercare for older adults: (1) referral pathways, (2) assessment tools and safety planning approaches and (3) engagement and intervention strategies. Methods: Databases PubMed, Medline, PsychINFO, Embase and CINAHL were searched from January 2010 to 10 July 2021 by two reviewers. Empirical studies reporting aftercare interventions for older adults (aged 60+) following self-harm (including with suicidal intent) were included. Full text of articles with abstracts meeting inclusion criteria were obtained and independently reviewed by three authors to determine final studies for review. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed level of evidence (Oxford) and quality ratings (Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for quantitative and Attree and Milton checklist for qualitative studies), working independently. Results: Twenty studies were reviewed (15 quantitative; 5 qualitative). Levels of evidence were low (3, 4), and quality ratings of quantitative studies variable, although qualitative studies rated highly. Most studies of referral pathways were observational and demonstrated marked variation with no clear guidelines or imperatives for community psychiatric follow-up. Of four screening tools evaluated, three were suicide-specific and one screened for depression. An evidence-informed approach to safety planning was described using cases. Strategies for aftercare engagement and intervention included two multifaceted approaches, psychotherapy and qualitative insights from older people who self-harmed, carers and clinicians. The qualitative studies identified targets for improved aftercare engagement, focused on individual context, experiences and needs. Conclusion: Dedicated older-adult aftercare interventions with a multifaceted, assertive follow-up approach accompanied by systemic change show promise but require further evaluation. Research is needed to explore the utility of needs assessment compared to screening and evaluate efficacy of safety planning and psychotherapeutic approaches.

2022 ◽  
Fang-Hsiao Hsu ◽  
Ya-Chen Lee ◽  
En-Chi Chiu

Abstract Background: The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) is one of the most commonly used cognitive screening tools to assess overall cognitive function in people with dementia. However, the unidimensionliaty of the CASI using Rasch analysis has not been evaluated in people with dementia, limiting its utility in clinical and research settings. Unidimensionality verifies whether all items of a measure reflect a single theoretical construct, which is necessary to determine whether clinicians and researchers can appropriately use the sum scores of the CASI to describe overall cognitive function. This study aimed to examine unidimensionality of the CASI using Rasch analysis and estimate Rasch person reliability in people with dementia. Methods: CASI data of people with dementia was collected from medical records of one general hospital in northern Taiwan. A total of 506 people with dementia were recruited from the Department of Neurology. Unidimensionality was confirmed through two assumptions: (1) the infit and outfit mean square (MnSq) were 0.6-1.4, and (2) residual variance of the first principal component in principal component analysis was ≤ 20%. Rasch person reliability was estimated after undimensionality was supported. Results: One item from the list-generating fluency dimension was misfitted (outfit MnSq=1.42) and was deleted. The unidimensionality of the remaining 45 items (referred to as the CASI-45) was supported with an infit and outfit MnSq (0.85-1.24 and 0.84-1.28, respectively) and low residual variance of the first principal component (12.8%). The Rasch person reliability of the CASI-45 was 0.62. Conclusion: The CASI-45 showed a unidimensional construct and had acceptable Rasch person reliability in people with dementia.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Mohammad Nami ◽  
Robert Thatcher ◽  
Nasser Kashou ◽  
Dahabada Lopes ◽  
Maria Lobo ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated neurological, mental health disorders, and neurocognitive issues. However, there is a lack of inexpensive and efficient brain evaluation and screening systems. As a result, a considerable fraction of patients with neurocognitive or psychobehavioral predicaments either do not get timely diagnosed or fail to receive personalized treatment plans. This is especially true in the elderly populations, wherein only 16% of seniors say they receive regular cognitive evaluations. Therefore, there is a great need for development of an optimized clinical brain screening workflow methodology like what is already in existence for prostate and breast exams. Such a methodology should be designed to facilitate objective early detection and cost-effective treatment of such disorders. In this paper we have reviewed the existing clinical protocols, recent technological advances and suggested reliable clinical workflows for brain screening. Such protocols range from questionnaires and smartphone apps to multi-modality brain mapping and advanced imaging where applicable. To that end, the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) proposes the Brain, Spine and Mental Health Screening (NEUROSCREEN) as a multi-faceted approach. Beside other assessment tools, NEUROSCREEN employs smartphone guided cognitive assessments and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as well as potential genetic testing for cognitive decline risk as inexpensive and effective screening tools to facilitate objective diagnosis, monitor disease progression, and guide personalized treatment interventions. Operationalizing NEUROSCREEN is expected to result in reduced healthcare costs and improving quality of life at national and later, global scales.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Liliana Giraldo-Rodríguez ◽  
Dolores Mino-León ◽  
Sergio Olinsser Aragón-Grijalva ◽  
Marcela Agudelo-Botero

Abstract Background The victimization of women constitutes a human rights violation and a health risk factor. The central objectives of this study were to analyze the probability of revictimization among older adult Mexican women and to examine whether child abuse (CA) and/or intimate partner violence (IPV) are associated with a greater risk of elder abuse (EA) victimization. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of 18416 women 60 and older, based on data from the National Survey on the Dynamics of Household Relationships (2016), which is national and subnational representative. A descriptive analysis was carried out using retrospective self-reports of victimization experiences (CA, IPV, and EA). The prevalence of victimization and multiple victimizations in the various stages of the lives of women, as well as of revictimization among older adult women were obtained. Bayesian logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between victimization, multiple victimization, and EA victimization. Results A total of 17.3% of the older adult women reported EA in the last year; of these, 81.0% had been revictimized and 14.0% reported CA, IPV, and EA. The risk of EA rose among women who reported a combination of psychological and sexual CA, and psychological, physical and sexual CA and psychological and sexual IPV, and a psychological, economic, physical and sexual IPV. EA was higher among women who had suffered more than one type of violence. Conclusion CA and IPV, particularly sexual abuse and psychological violence, can be risk factors for EA. Screening tools used to prevent and detect EA should include questions about domestic violence over the course of a person’s lifetime.

2022 ◽  
Jason Wilbur ◽  
Gerald Jogerst ◽  
Nicholas Butler ◽  
Yinghui Xu

Abstract Background: Older patients are at increased risk of falling and of serious morbidity and mortality resulting from falls. The ability to accurately identify older patients at increased fall risk affords the opportunity to implement interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality. Geriatricians are trained to assess older patients for fall risk. If geriatricians can accurately predict fallers (as opposed to evaluating for individual risk factors for falling), more aggressive and earlier interventions could be employed to reduce falls in older adult fallers. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding the accuracy of geriatrician fall risk predictions. This study aims to determine the accuracy of geriatricians in predicting falls. Methods: Between October 2018 and November 2019, a convenience sample of 100 subjects was recruited from an academic geriatric clinic population seeking routine medical care. Subjects performed a series of gait and balance assessments, answered the Stay Independent Brochure and were surveyed about fall incidence 6-12 months after study entry. Five geriatricians, blinded to subjects and fall outcomes, were provided the subjects’ data and asked to categorize each as a faller or non-faller. No requirements were imposed on the geriatricians’ use of the available data. These predictions were compared to predictions of an examining geriatrician who performed the assessments and to fall outcomes reported by subjects. Results: Kappa values for the 5 geriatricians who used all the available data to classify participants as fallers or non-fallers compared with the examining geriatrician were 0.42 to 0.59, indicating moderate agreement. Compared to screening tools’ mean accuracy of 66.6% (59.6-73.0%), the 5 geriatricians had a mean accuracy for fall prediction of 67.4% (57.3-71.9%).Conclusions: This study adds to the scant knowledge available in the medical literature regarding the abilities of geriatricians to accurately predict falls in older patients. Studies are needed to characterize how geriatrician assessments of fall risk compare to standardized assessment tools.

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