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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ebony Rose Watson ◽  
Atefeh Taherian Fard ◽  
Jessica Cara Mar

Integrating single cell omics and single cell imaging allows for a more effective characterisation of the underlying mechanisms that drive a phenotype at the tissue level, creating a comprehensive profile at the cellular level. Although the use of imaging data is well established in biomedical research, its primary application has been to observe phenotypes at the tissue or organ level, often using medical imaging techniques such as MRI, CT, and PET. These imaging technologies complement omics-based data in biomedical research because they are helpful for identifying associations between genotype and phenotype, along with functional changes occurring at the tissue level. Single cell imaging can act as an intermediary between these levels. Meanwhile new technologies continue to arrive that can be used to interrogate the genome of single cells and its related omics datasets. As these two areas, single cell imaging and single cell omics, each advance independently with the development of novel techniques, the opportunity to integrate these data types becomes more and more attractive. This review outlines some of the technologies and methods currently available for generating, processing, and analysing single-cell omics- and imaging data, and how they could be integrated to further our understanding of complex biological phenomena like ageing. We include an emphasis on machine learning algorithms because of their ability to identify complex patterns in large multidimensional data.

Yingchun Liu ◽  
Lin Chen ◽  
Jia Zhan ◽  
Xuehong Diao ◽  
Yun Pang ◽  

Objective: To explore inter-observer agreement on the evaluation of automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) for breast masses. Methods: A total of 846 breast masses in 630 patients underwent ABVS examinations. The imaging data were independently interpreted by senior and junior radiologists regarding the mass size ([Formula: see text][Formula: see text]cm, [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]cm and total). We assessed inter-observer agreement of BI-RADS lexicons, unique descriptors of ABVS coronal planes. Using BI-RADS 3 or 4a as a cutoff value, the diagnostic performances for 331 masses with pathological results in 253 patients were assessed. Results: The overall agreements were substantial for BI-RADS lexicons ([Formula: see text]–0.779) and the characteristics on the coronal plane of ABVS ([Formula: see text]), except for associated features ([Formula: see text]). However, the overall agreement was moderate for orientation ([Formula: see text]) for the masses [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]cm. The agreements were substantial to be perfect for categories 2, 3, 4, 5 and overall ([Formula: see text]–0.918). However, the agreements were moderate to substantial for categories 4a ([Formula: see text]), 4b ([Formula: see text]), and 4c ([Formula: see text]), except for category 4b of the masses [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]cm ([Formula: see text]). Moreover, for radiologists 1 and 2, there were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values with BI-RADS 3 or 4a as a cutoff value ([Formula: see text] for all). Conclusion: ABVS is a reliable imaging modality for the assessment of breast masses with good inter-observer agreement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Guohua Zhou ◽  
Bing Lu ◽  
Xuelong Hu ◽  
Tongguang Ni

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can have a good diagnostic function for important organs and parts of the body. MRI technology has become a common and important disease detection technology. At the same time, medical imaging data is increasing at an explosive rate. Retrieving similar medical images from a huge database is of great significance to doctors’ auxiliary diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, combining the advantages of sparse representation and metric learning, a sparse representation-based discriminative metric learning (SRDML) approach is proposed for medical image retrieval of brain MRI. The SRDML approach uses a sparse representation framework to learn robust feature representation of brain MRI, and uses metric learning to project new features into the metric space with matching discrimination. In such a metric space, the optimal similarity measure is obtained by using the local constraints of atoms and the pairwise constraints of coding coefficients, so that the distance between similar images is less than the given threshold, and the distance between dissimilar images is greater than another given threshold. The experiments are designed and tested on the brain MRI dataset created by Chang. Experimental results show that the SRDML approach can obtain satisfactory retrieval performance and achieve accurate brain MRI image retrieval.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Lei Yang ◽  
Qingmeng Liu ◽  
Yu Zhou ◽  
Xing Wang ◽  
Tongning Wu ◽  

Neurophysiological effect of human exposure to radiofrequency signals has attracted considerable attention, which was claimed to have an association with a series of clinical symptoms. A few investigations have been conducted on alteration of brain functions, yet no known research focused on intrinsic connectivity networks, an attribute that may relate to some behavioral functions. To investigate the exposure effect on functional connectivity between intrinsic connectivity networks, we conducted experiments with seventeen participants experiencing localized head exposure to real and sham time-division long-term evolution signal for 30 min. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected before and after exposure, respectively. Group-level independent component analysis was used to decompose networks of interest. Three states were clustered, which can reflect different cognitive conditions. Dynamic connectivity as well as conventional connectivity between networks per state were computed and followed by paired sample t-tests. Results showed that there was no statistical difference in static or dynamic functional network connectivity in both real and sham exposure conditions, and pointed out that the impact of short-term electromagnetic exposure was undetected at the ICNs level. The specific brain parcellations and metrics used in the study may lead to different results on brain modulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Marcel Peter Zwiers ◽  
Stefano Moia ◽  
Robert Oostenveld

Analyses of brain function and anatomy using shared neuroimaging data is an important development, and have acquired the potential to be scaled up with the specification of a new Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) standard. To date, a variety of software tools help researchers in converting their source data to BIDS but often require programming skills or are tailored to specific institutes, data sets, or data formats. In this paper, we introduce BIDScoin, a cross-platform, flexible, and user-friendly converter that provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to help users finding their way in BIDS standard. BIDScoin does not require programming skills to be set up and used and supports plugins to extend their functionality. In this paper, we show its design and demonstrate how it can be applied to a downloadable tutorial data set. BIDScoin is distributed as free and open-source software to foster the community-driven effort to promote and facilitate the use of BIDS standard.

2022 ◽  
Eleonora Picerni ◽  
Daniela Laricchiuta ◽  
Fabrizio Piras ◽  
Laura Petrosini ◽  
Gianfranco Spalletta ◽  

Abstract Brain structural bases of individual differences in attachment are not yet fully clarified. Given the evidence of relevant cerebellar contribution to cognitive, affective, and social functions, the present research was aimed at investigating potential associations between attachment dimensions (through the Attachment Style Questionnaire, ASQ) and cerebellar macro- and micro-structural measures (Volumetric and Diffusion Tensor Imaging data). In a sample of 79 healthy subjects, cerebellar and neocortical volumetric data were correlated with ASQ scores at the voxel level within specific Regions Of Interest. Also, correlations between ASQ scores and age, years of education, anxiety and depression levels were performed to control for the effects of sociodemographic and psychological variables on neuroimaging results.Positive associations between scores of the Preoccupation with Relationships (ASQ subscale associated to insecure/anxious attachment) and cortical volume were found in the cerebellum (right lobule VI and left Crus 2) and neocortex (right medial OrbitoFrontal Cortex, OFC) regions. Cerebellar contribution to the attachment behavioral system reflects the more general cerebellar engagement in the regulation of emotional and social behaviors. Cerebellar properties of timing, prediction, and learning well integrate with OFC processing supporting the regulation of attachment experiences. Cerebellar areas might be rightfully included in the attachment behavioral system.

2022 ◽  
pp. 084653712110661
Tyler D. Yan ◽  
Lauren E. Mak ◽  
Evelyn F. Carroll ◽  
Faisal Khosa ◽  
Charlotte J. Yong-Hing

Purpose: Transgender and gender non-binary (TGNB) individuals face numerous inequalities in healthcare and there is substantial work to be done in fostering TGNB culturally competent care in radiology. A radiology department’s online presence and use of gender-inclusive language are essential in promoting an environment of equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI). The naming of radiology fellowships and continuing medical education (CME) courses with terminology such as “Women’s Imaging” indicates a lack of inclusivity to TGNB patients and providers, which could result in suboptimal patient care. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of all institutions in Canada and the United States (US) offering training in Breast Imaging, Women’s Imaging, or Breast and Body Imaging. Data was collected from each institution’s radiology department website pertaining to fellowship names, EDI involvement, and CME courses. Results: 8 Canadian and 71 US radiology fellowships were identified. 75% of Canadian and 90% of US fellowships had gender-inclusive names. One (12.5%) Canadian and 29 (41%) US institutions had EDI Committees mentioned on their websites. Among institutions publicly displaying CME courses about breast/body or women’s imaging, gender-inclusive names were used in only 1 (25%) of the Canadian CME courses, compared to 81% of the US institutions. Conclusions: Most institutions in Canada and the US have gender-inclusive names for their radiology fellowships pertaining to breast and body imaging. However, there is much opportunity to and arguably the responsibility for institutions in both countries to increase the impact and visibility of their EDI efforts through creation of department-specific committees and CME courses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Sergio Stefanni ◽  
Luca Mirimin ◽  
David Stanković ◽  
Damianos Chatzievangelou ◽  
Lucia Bongiorni ◽  

Deep-sea ecosystems are reservoirs of biodiversity that are largely unexplored, but their exploration and biodiscovery are becoming a reality thanks to biotechnological advances (e.g., omics technologies) and their integration in an expanding network of marine infrastructures for the exploration of the seas, such as cabled observatories. While still in its infancy, the application of environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding approaches is revolutionizing marine biodiversity monitoring capability. Indeed, the analysis of eDNA in conjunction with the collection of multidisciplinary optoacoustic and environmental data, can provide a more comprehensive monitoring of deep-sea biodiversity. Here, we describe the potential for acquiring eDNA as a core component for the expanding ecological monitoring capabilities through cabled observatories and their docked Internet Operated Vehicles (IOVs), such as crawlers. Furthermore, we provide a critical overview of four areas of development: (i) Integrating eDNA with optoacoustic imaging; (ii) Development of eDNA repositories and cross-linking with other biodiversity databases; (iii) Artificial Intelligence for eDNA analyses and integration with imaging data; and (iv) Benefits of eDNA augmented observatories for the conservation and sustainable management of deep-sea biodiversity. Finally, we discuss the technical limitations and recommendations for future eDNA monitoring of the deep-sea. It is hoped that this review will frame the future direction of an exciting journey of biodiscovery in remote and yet vulnerable areas of our planet, with the overall aim to understand deep-sea biodiversity and hence manage and protect vital marine resources.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Panjiang Ma ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Jianbin Li

During the last two decades, as computer technology has matured and business scenarios have diversified, the scale of application of computer systems in various industries has continued to expand, resulting in a huge increase in industry data. As for the medical industry, huge unstructured data has been accumulated, so exploring how to use medical image data more effectively to efficiently complete diagnosis has an important practical impact. For a long time, China has been striving to promote the process of medical informatization, and the combination of big data and artificial intelligence and other advanced technologies in the medical field has become a hot industry and a new development trend. This paper focuses on cardiovascular diseases and uses relevant deep learning methods to realize automatic analysis and diagnosis of medical images and verify the feasibility of AI-assisted medical treatment. We have tried to achieve a complete diagnosis of cardiovascular medical imaging and localize the vulnerable lesion area. (1) We tested the classical object based on a convolutional neural network and experiment, explored the region segmentation algorithm, and showed its application scenarios in the field of medical imaging. (2) According to the data and task characteristics, we built a network model containing classification nodes and regression nodes. After the multitask joint drill, the effect of diagnosis and detection was also enhanced. In this paper, a weighted loss function mechanism is used to improve the imbalance of data between classes in medical image analysis, and the effect of the model is enhanced. (3) In the actual medical process, many medical images have the label information of high-level categories but lack the label information of low-level lesions. The proposed system exposes the possibility of lesion localization under weakly supervised conditions by taking cardiovascular imaging data to resolve these issues. Experimental results have verified that the proposed deep learning-enabled model has the capacity to resolve the aforementioned issues with minimum possible changes in the underlined infrastructure.

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