Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
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Olukemi Aromolaran ◽  
Ayantade D. V. Ayansina ◽  
Anuoluwapo A. Adegbami ◽  
Peace O. Oshanisi ◽  
David M. Oladoyin

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
Pavlina Lena ◽  
Spyridon A. Karageorgos ◽  
Panayiota Loutsiou ◽  
Annita Poupazi ◽  
Demetris Lamnisos ◽  

Healthcare workers’ (HCW) clothing has been shown to harbor multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) and may contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate presence of MDRB on HCW uniforms in Cyprus. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 9 hospital wards and 7 long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Nicosia, Cyprus, from April–August 2019. Sampling of HCW uniform pockets was conducted at the end of the first shift. Personal hygiene and other habits were recorded during personal interviews. Among 140 sampled HCW (69 from hospitals, 71 from LTCFs), 37 MDRB were identified, including 16 vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), 15 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 5 extended spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, and 1 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Presence of MDRB was higher in LTCFs compared to hospitals (p = 0.03). Higher MDRB rates in uniforms were noted in HCWs that worked <1 year (41.7% vs. 21.1%) and in HCWs that opted for home laundering (23.5% vs. 12.5%) or visited the toilet during shifts (38.1% vs. 20.2%). Our findings indicate that HCW uniforms harbor MDRB and relevant interventions may reduce transmission risk. We identified LTCFs as an important area for targeted measures. Additional factors associated with HCW practices, characteristics, and attire laundering practices represent areas for improvement, particularly in LTCFs.

2021 ◽  
Riju Maharjan ◽  
Anup Bastola ◽  
Nabaraj Adhikari ◽  
Komal Raj Rijal ◽  
Megha Raj Banjara ◽  

Abstract Background Bacterial opportunistic infections are quite common in HIV patients. Besides HIV-TB coinfection, lower respiratory tract infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria cause significant morbidity and mortality among HIV patients. This study was done to evaluate the bacterial coinfection of LRT and detect plasmid-mediated blaTEM and blaCTX−M genes among Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producing isolates from sputum samples in HIV patients. Methods A total of 263 sputum samples from HIV-positive cases were processed with standard microbiological methods to isolate and identify the possible pathogens. The identified bacterial isolates were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility pattern by using modified Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Plasmid DNA was extracted from multidrug-resistant and ESBL producers for screening of ESBL genes; blaCTX−M and blaTEM by conventional PCR method using specific primers. Results Of 263 sputum samples, 67 (25.48%) were culture positive showing Klebsiella pneumoniae; 17(25.37%) as the most predominant one. A higher rate of infection (4/8, 50%) was observed among old-aged people of 61 -70 years, whereas no infection was observed below 20 years. About 30.0% (15/50) of smokers, 32.86% (23/70) cases with previous pulmonary tuberculosis and 52.38% (11/21) with CD4 count <200 cells/µl were found to be susceptible to LRTIs. Among 53 bacterial isolates, 52.83% (n=28) were multidrug-resistant and 43.4% (n=23) were ESBL producers. All ESBL producers were sensitive to Colistin and Polymyxin B. Of 23 ESBL producers, 47.83% (11/23) and 8.6% (2/23) possessed only blaCTX−M and blaTEM genes respectively and 43.48% (10/23) possessed both ESBL genes. Conclusion The increasing rate of MDR bacterial infections mainly ESBL producers of LRTIs causes difficulty in the management of diseases leading to high morbidity and mortality of HIV patients.

2021 ◽  
C. Huguet ◽  
M. Bourjot ◽  
J-M. Bellanger ◽  
G. Prévost ◽  
A. Urbain

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