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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
S. Mumtaz ◽  
S. Mumtaz ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
H. M. Tahir ◽  
S. A. R. Kazmi ◽  
...  

Abstract Now a day’s multidrug resistance phenomenon has become the main cause for concern and there has been an inadequate achievement in the development of novel antibiotics to treat the bacterial infections. Therefore, there is an unmet need to search for novel adjuvant. Vitamin C is one such promising adjuvant. The present study was aimed to elucidate the antibacterial effect of vitamin C at various temperatures (4°C, 37°C and 50°C) and pH (3, 8, and 11), against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at various concentrations (5-20 mg/ml) through agar well diffusion method. Growth inhibition of all bacterial strains by vitamin C was concentration-dependent. Vitamin C significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus licheniformis (25.3 ± 0.9 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (22.0 ± 0.6 mm), Bacillus subtilis (19.3 ± 0.3 mm) and Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus mirabilis (27.67 ± 0.882 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.33±0.9 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.0 ± 1.5 mm) and Escherichia coli (18.3 ± 0.3 mm). The stability of vitamin C was observed at various pH values and various temperatures. Vitamin C showed significant antibacterial activity at acidic pH against all bacterial strains. Vitamin C remained the stable at different temperatures. It was concluded that vitamin C is an effective and safe antibacterial agent that can be used in the future as an adjunct treatment option to combat infections in humans.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
B. Javed ◽  
F. Farooq ◽  
M. Ibrahim ◽  
H. A. B. Abbas ◽  
H. Jawwad ◽  
...  

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
S. Arbab ◽  
H. Ullah ◽  
X. Wei ◽  
W. Wang ◽  
S. U. Ahmad ◽  
...  

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of common antibiotics against different microorganisms in apparently healthy cattle in Shandong province and its suburb. A total of 220 nasal swab samples were collected and cultured for bacteriological evaluation. All the bacteria isolates after preliminary identification were subjected to antibiogram studies following disc diffusion method. It was found in the study that E. coli is the most commonly associated isolate (21%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (18%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%), Salmonella spp. (15%), Shigella spp (12%), and Proteus spp (11%). While the antibiogram studies reveled that highest number of bacterial isolates showed resistance to Ampicillin (95%), followed by Augmentin (91%), Cefuroxime (85%) and Tetracycline (95%) of (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp). In the case of pseudomonas spp. and Salmonella the highest resistance was showed by Ampicillin (90%) followed by Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid (80%), Cefixime (90%), and Erythromycin (80%). In Shigella spp and Salmonella spp highest resistance was showed by Amoxicillin, Ceftazidime, Augmentin (60%), and Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid (50%). It is concluded that in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher resistance for Ampicillin, Augmentin, Cefuroxime, Cefixime, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, and Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid. The high multiple Antibiotics resistance indexes (MARI) observed in all the isolates in this study ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. MARI value of >0.2 is suggests multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and indicate presence of highly resistant bacteria.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Haroon ◽  
M. J. Iqbal ◽  
W. Hassan ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
H. Ahmed ◽  
...  

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M.S. Mahmood ◽  
A. Ashraf ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
A.B. Siddique ◽  
F. Asad ◽  
...  

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
S. A. Bano ◽  
S. Naz ◽  
B. Uzair ◽  
M. Hussain ◽  
M. M. Khan ◽  
...  

Abstract Many soil microorganisms’ i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 008-013
Author(s):  
Moussa Diawara ◽  
Modibo Coulibaly ◽  
Dramane Samaké ◽  
Soumaila Touré ◽  
Dramane Cissé ◽  
...  

Background: β-lactams and carbapenems. are the major antibiotics used to treat gram-negative bacteria and non-fermenting bacilli. However, the increasing production of β-lactamase and carbapenemase limits the therapeutic options. Our study aims to determine the resistant phenotypes of these bacteria while describing their epidemiological aspect. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study by consecutive enrollment from January 2018 to December 2019 at Sominé DOLO Hospital of Mopti, Mali. We performed manual method for bacteria culture, identification and antibiotics sensitivity testing. The antibiotics sensitivity testing was accessed by the diffusion method according to CA-SFM/EUCAST (“Comité de l’Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie” / European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) recommendations V1.0 february 2018 and V2.0 may 2019 2019 V.2.0. May recommendation released in 2019. Data were analyzed by software R 4.0.3 GUI 1.73 Catalina build (7892). Results: At all 904 samples were included in this study. Out of the 904 cultures, 297 sample (32.85%) were positive. The rates of enzymes production were as follow: Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) 56.42% (101/179), cepholosporinase hyperproduction (HCASE) 15.64% (28/179), cephalosporinase production (CASE) 6.14% (11/179), penicillinase hyperproduction (HP) 5.58% (10/179), carbapenemase production (CP) 6.14% (11/179) and savage strains 10.05% (18/179). Conclusion: Our data showed a high prevalence of resistance to β-lactamins ß-talactamins and carbapenemes in gram-negative bacteria and non-fermenting bacillus bacilli. The A high level of β-lactamase and carbapenemase production by gram negative bacillus were also reported by others authors calls for the rational use of antibiotic in hospital setting.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 008-013
Author(s):  
Moussa Diawara ◽  
Modibo Coulibaly ◽  
Dramane Samaké ◽  
Soumaila Touré ◽  
Dramane Cissé ◽  
...  

Background: β-lactams and carbapenems. are the major antibiotics used to treat gram-negative bacteria and non-fermenting bacilli. However, the increasing production of β-lactamase and carbapenemase limits the therapeutic options. Our study aims to determine the resistant phenotypes of these bacteria while describing their epidemiological aspect. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study by consecutive enrollment from January 2018 to December 2019 at Sominé DOLO Hospital of Mopti, Mali. We performed manual method for bacteria culture, identification and antibiotics sensitivity testing. The antibiotics sensitivity testing was accessed by the diffusion method according to CA-SFM/EUCAST (“Comité de l’Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie” / European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) recommendations V1.0 february 2018 and V2.0 may 2019 2019 V.2.0. May recommendation released in 2019. Data were analyzed by software R 4.0.3 GUI 1.73 Catalina build (7892). Results: At all 904 samples were included in this study. Out of the 904 cultures, 297 sample (32.85%) were positive. The rates of enzymes production were as follow: Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) 56.42% (101/179), cepholosporinase hyperproduction (HCASE) 15.64% (28/179), cephalosporinase production (CASE) 6.14% (11/179), penicillinase hyperproduction (HP) 5.58% (10/179), carbapenemase production (CP) 6.14% (11/179) and savage strains 10.05% (18/179). Conclusion: Our data showed a high prevalence of resistance to β-lactamins ß-talactamins and carbapenemes in gram-negative bacteria and non-fermenting bacillus bacilli. The A high level of β-lactamase and carbapenemase production by gram negative bacillus were also reported by others authors calls for the rational use of antibiotic in hospital setting.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-007
Author(s):  
Chigozie John Ekenze ◽  
Samuel Monday Utin ◽  
Timothy Olugbenga Ogundeko ◽  
Oyinyechi Lilian Umunnakwe ◽  
Lilian Chioma Owunna ◽  
...  

More exploration on medicinal plants and other natural products in the present era of increase in poverty level and multi-drug resistance has become crucial. The aim of this study is to explore the inhibitory activities of Vitellaria paradoxa seed oil extract on isolated staphylococcal conjunctivitis. Cultured sample of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a patient’s eye discharge in the Teaching Hospital Laboratory of the Imo State University, Nigeria having been diagnosed with bacterial conjunctivitis at the eye Clinic. After the incubation period, the diameter of zones of inhibition both horizontal and vertical were measured. Concentrations (100, 50 and 25mg/ml) of the ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa were assayed for the antibacterial activity - Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using the agar well diffusion method. Ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa at concentration of 100mg /ml exhibited the highest zone of inhibition at 37.4mm for 24hrs followed by 50mg /ml and lowest using 25mg/ml (5.0mm) indicating a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on Staphylococcal conjunctivitis. S. aureus isolated from conjunctivitis swab was susceptible to ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa at 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml concentrations, suggesting ethanolic extract of V. paradoxa oil as possessing antimicrobial property. Further exploration for its use as an ocular anti-bacterial agent is recommended.


Author(s):  
Sri Hidanah ◽  
Emy Koestanti Sabdoningrum ◽  
Soeharsono . ◽  
Ayu Andira ◽  
Noor Amina Varhana

Background: Salmonella Pullorum are pathogenic bacteria that causes salmonellosis and causes heavy economic losses in the poultry industry and are zoonotic. Treatment of diseases caused by bacteria generally use antibiotics, but excessive administration of antibiotics causes bacterial resistance and residues in livestock. Major chemical constituents of Sambiloto are andrographolide and flavonoids. Andrographolide has antibacterial effect in addition to being antitoxic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic. Methods: The research was conducted by isolating and identifying Salmonella Pullorum on SSA media and a series of biochemical tests (TSIA, SIM, SCA, urea media and sugar test), manufacturing sambiloto extract, testing the sensitivity of several antibiotics using the disk diffusion method and testing the activation of sambiloto extract against Salmonella Pullorum using the disk diffusion and dilution methods. Result: The result show that sambiloto had antibacterial activity because it contained andrographolide, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and tannins and the lowest extract dose that effectively killed Salmonella Pullorum is concentrations of 20%.


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