randomized clinical trials
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 655
Author(s):  
Elisabet Roca-Millan ◽  
Enric Jané-Salas ◽  
Antonio Marí-Roig ◽  
Álvaro Jiménez-Guerra ◽  
Iván Ortiz-García ◽  
...  

The demand for synthetic graft materials in implant dentistry is rising. This systematic review aims to evaluate the survival rate of dental implants placed simultaneously with bone regeneration procedures using the material β-tricalcium phosphate, one of the most promising synthetic graft materials. The electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. There were five randomized clinical trials, one of which was a non-randomized controlled clinical trial and four of which were observational studies without a control group included. Implant survival rate and other clinical, radiographic, and histological parameters did not differ from those of implants placed simultaneously with another type of graft material, or placed in blood clots or natural alveolar ridges. Based on the available literature, β-tricalcium phosphate seems to be a promising graft material in implant dentistry. Nevertheless, more randomized clinical trials, with long follow-up periods, preoperative and postoperative CBCT, and histological analysis, are necessary to assess its long-term behavior.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Juliawati Muhammad ◽  
Yusnita Yusof ◽  
Imran Ahmad ◽  
Mohd Noor Norhayati

Abstract Background Elagolix is effective and safe for treating menorrhagia in women with uterine fibroid. However, it is reported to be associated with hypoestrogenism that can be alleviated by adding estradiol/norethindrone acetate. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effectiveness of elagolix treatment in women with heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroid by comparing: elagolix versus placebo and elagolix versus estradiol/norethindrone acetate. Methodology The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2021, Issue 3 of 12), MEDLINE databases (1980 to December week 1, 2020), and trial registries for relevant randomized clinical trials were used. All randomized clinical trials were reviewed and evaluated. Random effects models were used to estimate the dichotomous outcomes and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Data for risk of bias, heterogeneity, sensitivity, reporting bias and quality of evidence were assessed. Results Four randomized controlled trials with 1949 premenopausal women from 323 locations were included. Elagolix improved menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml (RR 4.81, 95% CI 2.45 to 9.45; four trials, 869 participants; moderate quality evidence) or more than 50% reduction from baseline (RR 4.87, 95% CI 2.55 to 9.31; four trials, 869 participants; moderate quality evidence) compared to placebo. There was no difference in menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16; five trials, 1365 participants; moderate quality evidence) or more than 50% reduction from baseline between the elagolix (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.15; five trials, 1365 participants; high quality evidence) and elagolix with estradiol/norethindrone acetate. In both comparisons, elagolix has reduced the mean percentage change in uterine and fibroid volume, improved symptoms, and health-related quality of life. More patients had hot flush, and bone mineral density loss in the elagolix treatment compared to both placebo and elagolix with estradiol/norethindrone acetate. Conclusions Elagolix appeared to be effective in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding caused by uterine fibroid and combination with estradiol/norethindrone acetate was able to alleviate the hypoestrogenism side effects in premenopausal women. Review registration PROSPERO CDR 42021233898.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel Freilich ◽  
Jennifer Victory ◽  
Anne Gadomski

Background In the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, many hospitalized patients received empiric hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (HC/CQ). Although some retrospective-observational trials suggested potential benefit, all subsequent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) failed to show benefit and use generally ceased. Herein, we summarize key studies that clinicians advising patients on HC/CQ efficacy:safety calculus in hospitalized COVID-19 patients would want to know about in a practical one-stop-shopping source. Methods Pubmed and Google were searched on November 4, 2021. Search words included: COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, in vitro, animal studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses. Studies were assessed for import and included if considered impactful for benefit:risk assessment. Results These searches led to inclusion of 12 in vitro and animal reports; 12 retrospective-observational trials, 19 interventional clinical trials (17 RCTs, 1 single-arm, 1 controlled but unblinded), and 51 meta-analyses in hospitalized patients. Inconsistent efficacy was seen in vitro and in animal studies for coronaviruses and nil in SARS-CoV-2 animal models specifically. Most retrospective-observational studies in hospitalized COVID-19 patients found no efficacy; QT prolongation and increased adverse events and mortality were reported in some. All RCTs and almost all meta-analyses provided robust data showing no benefit in overall populations and subgroups, yet concerning safety issues in many. Conclusions HC/CQ have inconsistent anti-coronavirus efficacy in vitro and in animal models, and no convincing efficacy yet substantial safety issues in the overwhelming majority of retrospective-observational trials, RCTs, and meta-analyses in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. HC/CQ should not be prescribed for hospitalized COVID-19 patients outside of clinical trials.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Jose W. Ricardo ◽  
Yuqing Qiu ◽  
Shari R. Lipner

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Nail psoriasis (NP) disproportionally affects quality of life in females versus males. Demographics of NP research cohorts are not well characterized. In this systematic review, we characterize the representation of racial/ethnic groups and women in NP randomized clinical trials (RCTs). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> A systematic search of MEDLINE was performed; RCTs of NP pharmacologic treatments or cutaneous psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis with the number of NP patients described were included. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Overall, 45 RCTs were analyzed, with 91.1% reporting sex, and 67.9% of participants were men. 7/41 (17%) studies reporting sex included ≥45% female participants. Of 45 RCTs, 35.6% reported race and/or ethnicity. Of the 22 studies with ≥1 US-based site, 13 (59%) reported race/ethnicity; 3 out of 23 (13%) studies with &#x3c;1 US-based site reported these data. Enrollment of nonwhite participants was significantly lower than representation within the US census (13.4% vs. 39.9%; <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). Treatment type, route of administration, location with ≥1 US-based site, funding, and journal type were significantly associated with race/ethnicity reporting (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.05 all comparisons). <b><i>Discussion/Conclusion:</i></b> Reporting of racial/ethnic demographics is lacking in NP RCTs. Women and racial/ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in NP research. There is a need for increased reporting and diversification of NP clinical trial participants.


Haematologica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Julien Lopinto ◽  
Segolene Gendreau ◽  
Enora Berti ◽  
Pablo Bartolucci ◽  
Anoosha Habibi ◽  
...  

Whether corticosteroids improve outcome in patients with acute complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) is still debated. We performed a systematic review of the literature with the aim of estimating effects of corticosteroids on the clinical course of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) or acute chest syndrome (ACS) in patients with SCD. The primary outcome was transfusion requirement during hospitalization. Studies were identified by search of MEDLINE and CENTRAL database. Three randomized clinical trials (RCT) and three retrospective cohort studies (RCS) were included, involving 3,304 participants and 5,562 VOC or ACS episodes. There was no difference between corticosteroids and standard treatment regarding transfusion overall [OR=0.98 (95% CI 0.38 to 2.53)], but with a significant interaction of study type (P


Author(s):  
Francisco M. Kovacs ◽  
Natalia Burgos-Alonso ◽  
Ana María Martín-Nogueras ◽  
Jesús Seco-Calvo

A systematic review was conducted to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of education programs to prevent and treat low back pain (LBP) in the Hispanic cultural setting. Electronic and manual searches identified 1148 unique references. Nine randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included in this review. Methodological quality assessment and data extraction followed the recommendations from the Cochrane Back Pain Review Group. Education programs which were assessed focused on active management (3 studies), postural hygiene (7), exercise (4) and pain neurophysiology (1). Comparators were no intervention, usual care, exercise, other types of education, and different combinations of these procedures. Five RCTs had a low risk of bias. Results show that: (a) education programs in the school setting can transmit potentially useful knowledge for LBP prevention and (b) education programs for patients with LBP improve the outcomes of usual care, especially in terms of disability. Education on pain neurophysiology improves the results of education on exercise, and education on active management is more effective than “sham” education and education on postural hygiene. Future studies should assess the comparative or summatory effects of education on exercise, education on pain neurophysiology and education on active management, as well as explore their efficiency.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Xi Guo ◽  
Xiaojun Chen ◽  
Jinlan Chen ◽  
Zhiping Tan ◽  
Yifeng Yang ◽  
...  

Traditional Chinese medicine has long been applied to various diseases in China for a few thousand years. In recent years, its market has gradually developed from Asian countries to Western countries. At present, due to the lack of evidence-based medicine research, the effect of traditional Chinese medicine on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains unclear. In evaluating the efficacy and safety of drugs, randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are recognized as the gold standard for testing the effectiveness and safety of treatments and could offer the best evidence for the formulation of clinical treatment guidelines. Although traditional Chinese medicine has long been used to treat cardiovascular diseases, the research on the application of RCT to test the combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy or single traditional Chinese medicine therapy started late, and the number is comparably small. In order to summarize and objectively evaluate the research results of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in intervention of cardiovascular diseases, we reviewed the literature of RCTs in this field by searching some Chinese and English databases and put forward some suggestions for the future development and research of traditional Chinese medicine.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Saket Jain ◽  
Eric J. Chalif ◽  
Manish K. Aghi

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor with a median survival ranging from 6.2 to 16.7 months. The complex interactions between the tumor and the cells of tumor microenvironment leads to tumor evolution which ultimately results in treatment failure. Immunotherapy has shown great potential in the treatment of solid tumors but has been less effective in treating glioblastoma. Failure of immunotherapy in glioblastoma has been attributed to low T-cell infiltration in glioblastoma and dysfunction of the T-cells that are present in the glioblastoma microenvironment. Recent advances in single-cell sequencing have increased our understanding of the transcriptional changes in the tumor microenvironment pre and post-treatment. Another treatment modality targeting the tumor microenvironment that has failed in glioblastoma has been anti-angiogenic therapy such as the VEGF neutralizing antibody bevacizumab, which did not improve survival in randomized clinical trials. Interestingly, the immunosuppressed microenvironment and abnormal vasculature of glioblastoma interact in ways that suggest the potential for synergy between these two therapeutic modalities that have failed individually. Abnormal tumor vasculature has been associated with immune evasion and the creation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment, suggesting that inhibiting pro-angiogenic factors like VEGF can increase infiltration of effector immune cells into the tumor microenvironment. Remodeling of the tumor vasculature by inhibiting VEGFR2 has also been shown to improve the efficacy of PDL1 cancer immunotherapy in mouse models of different cancers. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in our understanding of the glioblastoma tumor microenvironment specially the tumor vasculature and its interactions with the immune cells, and opportunities to target these interactions therapeutically. Combining anti-angiogenic and immunotherapy in glioblastoma has the potential to unlock these therapeutic modalities and impact the survival of patients with this devastating cancer.


Author(s):  
Caroline Dini ◽  
Marta Maria Alves Pereira ◽  
João Gabriel Silva Souza ◽  
Jamil A. Shibli ◽  
Erica Dorigatti Avila ◽  
...  

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